“Sage on the Stage” vs. “Guide on the Side” Education Philosophy (2024)

“Sage on the Stage” vs. “Guide on the Side” Education Philosophy (1)

I expect most educators are familiar with this concept: You can be a “sage on the stage” in your classroom, using your expertise to share knowledge with your students through lectures and presentations. Or you can be a “guide on the side,” using your skills to engage your students in first-hand learning through projects and experiences.

I also get the sense that teachers can be sensitive when discussing this dichotomy or even thinking about how they fit into it. It makes perfect sense that it could be a touchy issue: Most teachers are very proud of what they do, and we can react quickly if we feel people are judging how we choose to teach and manage our classrooms. (That’s certainly true for me.) Nevertheless, I think it’s worthwhile to take a stab at outlining my own thoughts on the sage vs. guide dichotomy—and maybe it might even spark productive discussion!

I’ve been thinking about my own tendencies as a sage or a guide throughout my teaching career so far, but I was especially motivated to write this post in response to the strong positions taken by Ted Dintersmith in his 2018 book What School Could Be: Insights and Inspiration from Teachers Across America, a book I also wrote about in this recent post.

First, let’s clarify: Few primary and secondary teachers in the United States are going to be entirely “sages” or entirely “guides” 100% of the time in their classrooms. Even in the classrooms I’ve observed where teachers create the most top-down systems of imparting knowledge to students, there are still occasions where students are asked to struggle with material on their own and don’t receive all the answers from their teacher. Even in the most open, project-based learning environment, a teacher will almost certainly still ask for moments of silence where they can give students instructions and lay the guidelines for learning. The sage and the guide are highly contrasting images of teaching, but few educators are ever going to fully embody one or the other.

I don’t even know if I could quantify how much of my time in the classroom I spend being a sage or a guide. If I had to take a guess, I have probably been more of a guide for the past five years. Nevertheless, it seems that many thinkers in education today are strongly opposed to the sage approach—including Ted Dintersmith—and I want to push back against that line of thinking. I believe the ideal teacher should be able to act as both a sage on the stage and a guide on the side, and they should carefully evaluate when it’s most valuable to use each approach.

Agency and Adults

In his book, Dintersmith talks about his ideal goal of schools creating “PEAK” learning environments, where PEAK stands for providing Purpose, Essentials, Agency, and Knowledge. The key letter here is A, because one implication of prioritizing students’ agency above all else is that being a “sage on the stage” as a teacher—choosing what students should learn next—becomes virtually impossible.

What School Could Be is based on Dintersmith’s tour through hundreds of schools in all fifty states, and while he describes a wide variety of different ideas and approaches, it’s clear that he believes teachers should be guides on the side. Here he describes the Acton Academy in Austin, Texas:

The school has no teachers, just a few adult “guides” who aren’t expected to be subject-matter experts or allowed to answer questions.

This description sounds pretty extreme, and even approaches the idea of “unschooling,” where children play and learn entirely outside of a set curriculum or any of the bounds of traditional schooling.

I admire and appreciate the drive to give students more agency in their educations: It would be amazing to see more schools where students choose what goals they want to pursue, what questions they want to ask, and how they want to find the answers. However, the Acton Academy model (as described in this inevitably simplified sentence) sounds like a misstep to me, not because of the agency given to the students, but because of the low expectations and limits set for the adults.

Even if a child was being unschooled, completely divorced from a schedule or a school building, I would still want that child to be able to interact with educated, knowledgeable adults and turn to them for answers and advice whenever they wanted to. The idea that adults would monitor a classroom full of students and not be “allowed to answer questions” stymies me, and it feels completely artificial. Humans are social creatures, and since the very development of speech we have passed knowledge from generation to generation by talking to each other, telling stories, and sharing accumulated wisdom. I can understand the idea that an adult may withhold an immediate, direct answer in order to encourage students to explore deeper—teachers do that all the time—but to forbid adults to provide any answers at all? It defies our very history.

One of the primary reasons I became a teacher is because I am a subject-matter expert. Dintersmith strongly emphasizes that students should be taught real-world skills and approaches in school — and we need to remember that asking subject-matter experts for help and information is absolutely a real-world skill. (I hear there’s even an entire industry called “consulting” based on it.) I never pretend to know all the answers to my students questions in the classroom; I regularly turn them toward other sources to find what they want to know. However, if a student asks me about medieval Ireland, 19th-century Korea, Chinuk Wawa (Chinook Jargon), or any other of the many, many topics that I have specifically pursued in my education and become particularly knowledgeable about, I’m never going to pretend that I can’t help them out and provide them with insights. In fact, I believe that when teachers display enthusiastic expertise in the classroom, they can even inspire students to reach for the same sort of in-depth knowledge of a subject.

Let’s take Chinuk Wawa as what I hope will be an illuminating example: The language is not an essential part of the curricula for any of my courses, but if it came up in class I would love to take a few minutes to discuss it further. Let’s consider two different courses of action I could take—a “guide” approach and a “sage” approach—if the topic came up in the classroom:

  1. I could ask the students to get out their phones and laptops to research Chinuk Wawa on the internet for a few minutes. Then they could discuss what they learned in pairs or small groups and then share with me.
  2. I could use my own expertise to talk to the students about Chinuk Wawa for a few minutes.

In scenario #1, a lot of my students would very quickly find some basic explanatory information about Chinook Jargon, likely from Wikipedia. (They would be unlikely to find any information indicating that the word “jargon” can be problematic and misleading in describing the language.) A few students might dig a little deeper and find more interesting details, and a few might even connect the information with prior knowledge they have. Most, however, would not.

In scenario #2, I could quickly and efficiently explain to my students both the definition and importance of Chinuk Wawa to Northwest Coast History. I could connect that information immediately to whatever we’re learning in class, and to prior knowledge the students may have (the most common Chinuk Wawa words used in Alaska, for example, or the words in the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian languages that originally came from English or French by way of Chinuk Wawa). That information can be quite difficult to find with a quick internet search.

Clearly, this scenario is a specific one, and there are others where I wouldn’t have the same level of expertise to give students immediate insights. However, I do believe that “sage on the stage” approaches are valid and valuable in a variety of circumstances. Experts and sages make a difference.

Guiding Students Through the Internet

This example raises another extremely important issue with education in the 21st century—the role of the internet in student learning. Dintersmith writes:

The role of teachers changes in PEAK environments. They don’t try to outdo the Internet in delivering content.

Here, Dintersmith really seems to believe that the Internet holds all the answers that students need in their learning, but I couldn’t disagree more. Not only is there a great deal of knowledge that is either difficult or impossible to find on the internet, but in many cases teachers can also serve as far better “content delivery systems” than the internet. As human beings, teachers are more intelligent, more flexible, more responsive, and more capable of meeting students’ needs. We think constantly about what will help our students most, and content creators on the internet can’t replicate that process.

I hope I don’t sound arrogant in saying this, but I regularly “outdo” the internet on a day-to-day basis in my classroom. I can communicate information to my students more efficiently, and I can often be just as funny as the more humorous historians out there. I understand my students, their cultural context, their prior knowledge, and their individual needs far better than someone who creates YouTube videos thousands of miles away or wrote an article on a website years ago. It’s not that online videos and articles aren’t extremely useful; I use them in the classroom constantly. It’s just that those videos and articles often fail to meet students’ needs or communicate information effectively in isolation.

Frequently, the websites and videos students find when doing research are either too dry or too overwhelming to engage them, and a good teacher can explain information in ways that are both more captivating and more precise. As a daily consumer of YouTube videos, I constantly find videos that can easily lead young people into misinformation, misinterpretation, and most dangerously, hateful ideologies.

Teachers shouldn’t ban or ignore the internet because of these dangers; instead, we need to challenge the internet, advise students in their use of it, and call “Bullshit!” loudly whenever we need to (which can be pretty frequently). If teachers aren’t knowledgeable about what they’re teaching and don’t have any more perspective on any given piece of internet research than the students who found it, then those teachers will likely fail their students in guiding them to think critically about their use of technology and sources of information.

The Sage on the Side and the Guide on the Inside?

In the case of internet use, I think teachers really need to serve as “sages on the side.” It is important to ask students to develop research skills and turn to the internet for answers in many situations—which is, of course, a real-world skill—but educators need to be knowledgeable and wise enough to guide students away from the online pitfalls of misinformation and ideology that are all too easy for young people to fall into. It took me a long time to develop the level of critical mistrust of the internet that I have today, and even now there are still occasions where I’ll get engrossed in an attractive myth presented online before realizing there’s something fishy about it.

There’s also another important element to consider when bandying about this sage vs. guide dichotomy: To what extent are you as an educator participating with your students, working among them, rather than standing in front of them or off to the side? This article by Mark Nichols effectively criticizes the sage vs. guide terminology, and one of the commenters suggests the phrase “guide from the inside” as an alternative that emphasizes educators’ participation with their students. I don’t think I’ve been very successful in this goal so far in my career, but I would also aspire to show my students how I am a lifelong learner exploring right alongside them. I might be a teacher, but I’m also still a student.

In the end, the best path we can all follow as educators is to actively question how we interact with our students and what methods will serve them best in any given situation. The “sage on the stage” and “guide on the side” ideas may be clichés, but I think they’re still useful concepts to help us consider how we act in the classroom and how we can choose the appropriate approach in different circumstances. I plan to keep striving to be the best sage I can be and the best guide I can be—whether I’m on the stage, off to the side, or deep in the trenches with my students.

“Sage on the Stage” vs. “Guide on the Side” Education Philosophy (2024)

FAQs

What philosophy supports the sage on the stage? ›

The notion of the 'sage on the stage' is associated with what is sometimes called 'teacher-centred' education or 'traditional' education. In this view of learning the teacher is the expert who owns all the knowledge and transmits it to the students.

What is sage on the stage teaching? ›

Sage on the stage is a teaching method where a professor imparts knowledge by lecturing to their class. Students are expected to take notes, memorize and regurgitate this information on request with little feedback. The professor transmits their knowledge to students, who passively absorb the material.

Who said sage on the stage guide on the side? ›

Guide on the Side. Twenty years ago, a small article by Alison King appeared in the journal College Teaching. It was titled “From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side.” That article would come to represent the big debate on education reform.

Which of the following may be considered part of a teacher's role of sage on the stage rather than guide on the side? ›

A 'sage on stage' is an instructor who lectures almost exclusively, who has the philosophy that s/he has knowledge to 'give' learners who would benefit from this. On the other hand, a 'guide on the side' is a facilitator who helps learners discover knowledge and steer them in ways that would help them.

What is the meaning of sage philosophy? ›

According to Oruka, Sage Philosophy is “the expressed thoughts of wise men and women in any given community and is a way of thinking and explaining the world that fluctuates between popular wisdom (well known communal maxims, aphorisms and general common sense truths) and didactic wisdom, an expounded wisdom and a ...

What is the purpose of sages? ›

Native Americans and other indigenous peoples have burned sage for centuries as part of a spiritual ritual to cleanse a person or space, and to promote healing and wisdom. It's been used since the time of the ancient Egyptians and Romans to treat digestive issues, memory problems, and sore throats.

What is a guide on the side? ›

Noun. guide on the side (plural guides on the side) (education) An educator whose method is to provide students with occasional advice, assistance, and correction while allowing them to explore a subject area independently or by interacting among themselves; this educational method itself.

What is about teacher as a guide on the side? ›

A guide on the side means the teacher simply directing the slow of the education and letting the student make the journey themselves. A teacher is only a mentor, not someone who get themselves involved in every minute detail. It's learner-centricity at it's finest.

Which sage is known as the teacher of the gods? ›

Brihaspati (Sanskrit: बृहस्पति, IAST: Bṛhaspati), also known as Guru, is a Hindu deity. In the ancient Vedic scriptures of Hinduism, Brihaspati is a deity associated with fire, and the word also refers to a rishi (sage) who counsels the devas (gods).

What are the three student-centered philosophies? ›

Some of the most popular student-centered philosophies include progressivism, social reconstructionism, and existentialism.

What is Perennialism in philosophy of education? ›

Perennialism values knowledge that transcends time. This is a subject-centered philosophy. The goal of a perennialist educator is to teach students to think rationally and develop minds that can think critically.

Which of the following statement is specifically found in RA 7836? ›

Answer: B. Republic Act 7836 is the Republic Act that prescribes the Licensure Examination for Teachers and strengthens the regulation and supervision of the practice of teaching in the Philippines.

Which one of the following are the roles of the teachers in the foundation phase? ›

The Foundation Phase teachers are responsible for the following activities: The preparation of lessons as per the CAPS curriculum requirements. Researching new teaching aids and support material such as textbooks. The development of each students' interests and abilities through activities.

What are the three categories in which the essential teacher characteristics fall into? ›

When examining effective teachers, the essential teacher characteristics fall into three categories: knowledge, skills, and disposi- tions.

What is the full meaning of sage? ›

: proceeding from or characterized by wisdom, prudence, and good judgment. sage advice. : wise through reflection and experience. archaic : grave, solemn.

What is the true meaning of sage? ›

a profoundly wise person; a person famed for wisdom. someone venerated for the possession of wisdom, judgment, and experience.

Why is it called a sage? ›

Sage's botanical name comes from the Latin word "salvere," meaning "to be saved." Once prized for its medicinal value, the most popular use of sage these days is in the stuffing for a holiday turkey.

What do the sages say answer? ›

The sages say that life is not a bad dream as believed by many people. Was this answer helpful?

What does sage advice mean? ›

wise, especially as a result of great experience: sage advice. my sage old grandfather. SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases. Wise and sensible.

What are the qualities of a sage? ›

So, when thinking about your own Sage, here are some traits you might want to consider incorporating:
  • Caring.
  • Determined.
  • Incorruptible.
  • Insightful.
  • Knowledgeable.
  • Logical.
  • Patient.
  • Rational.
10 Feb 2022

What is the main purpose of a guide? ›

A guide is a person who leads travelers, sportsmen, or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations. The term can also be applied to a person who leads others to more abstract goals such as knowledge or wisdom.

What are the different types of guide? ›

Here are some common tour guide types:
  • Historical guide. A historical guide leads tourists around historical landmarks and points of interest like ruins, temples, battlefields and other sites of historical importance. ...
  • Adventure guide. ...
  • Museum guide. ...
  • Nature guide. ...
  • City guide. ...
  • Park guide. ...
  • Freelance guide.
3 May 2021

What is the guide used for? ›

A guide is a book that gives you information or instructions to help you do or understand something.

What is the role of the teacher as a guide? ›

It is at this point in a student's life that a teacher takes on the role of a guide. The teacher has the power to stir a wayward youth away from danger and the power to guide a youth to achieve his goals. He has the power to inculcate the ideals of patriotism in the minds of the young students.

Why is it important for teachers to guide students? ›

Guiding students is one of the most important facets of a teacher's job. Supporting them as they work through important decisions can ensure that they choose the path in life that's right for them.

Why is it important to guide a teacher on what should be taught in class? ›

It helps teachers to use different strategies, methods, make use of different tools to make teaching process more interesting. Thus, a proper lesson plan helps teachers to avoid mistakes and clarifies beforehand.

What sage is most powerful? ›

His strength limited by the magical crest with which he was born, Mathias, the world's most powerful sage, decides reincarnation is necessary to become the strongest of all.

Is a sage a god? ›

Karl Ludwig Michelet wrote that "Greek religion culminated with its true god, the sage"; Pierre Hadot develops this idea, stating that "the moment philosophers achieve a rational conception of God based on the model of the sage, Greece surpasses its mythical representation of its gods." Indeed, the actions of the sage ...

Who is the 7th sage? ›

The Muse Calliope anticlockwise surrounded by Socrates and the Seven Sages - Solon, , Thales, Bias , Cleobulus, Periandros, Pittacus and Chilon. (c. 620 BC–550 BC) was the title given by Greek tradition to seven wise ancient Greek men who were philosophers, statesmen and law-givers.

What are the 7 philosophy of education with explanation? ›

These include Essentialism, Perennialism, Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism, Existentialism, Behaviorism, Constructivism, Conservatism, and Humanism. Essentialism and Perennialism are the two types of teacher-centered philosophies of education.

What are the 5 major philosophies of education explain each philosophy? ›

They are Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect. For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization.

What are the 4 main ideas of philosophy? ›

There are four pillars of philosophy: theoretical philosophy (metaphysics and epistemology), practical philosophy (ethics, social and political philosophy, aesthetics), logic, and history of philosophy.

What is perennialism in your own words? ›

Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted over centuries. They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written. They recommend that students learn from reading and analyzing the works by history's finest thinkers and writers.

What is an example of perennialism in education? ›

Accordingly, perennialism asks educators to avoid teaching fads that will soon become obsolete. For example, it may be tempting for teachers to utilize 21st century novels like Twilight to capture student interest, but vampire romances will likely go out of style, only to be replaced by some other supernatural fad.

What are the two main forms of perennialism philosophy? ›

There are two main types of Perennialist. Ecclesiastical Perennialists and Lay (secular) Perennialists. Both groups have had a significant influence on the type of curriculum used in Perennialist classrooms.

What is its most important objective aim RA 7836? ›

Objectives. - This Act has the herein objectives: The promotion, development and professionalization of teachers and the teaching profession; and. The supervision and regulation of the licensure examination.

What is the importance of the Republic Act No 7836 to become a professional teacher? ›

For aspiring teachers, the Republic Act No. 7836 or the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 strengthens the supervision and regulation of the practice of teaching in the Philippines. All teachers are required to take and pass Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).

What is the impact of RA 7836 of the teaching profession? ›

To encourage continuing professional growth and development and to provide additional basis for merit promotion, in addition to their performance rating, teachers may take an oral and written examination at least once in five (5) years as basis for merit promotion.

What is the role of a teacher in guiding and supporting students in the growth of their moral development? ›

The teachers teach students the moral values and behaviors, and act as a role model for showing students the desirable characters and traits in the school and also the society. They also teach students to respect the rights of other persons and teach them about the acceptance of responsibility for one's actions.

What are the stages of teaching? ›

Phases of teaching
  • Planning stage I (Pre-active phase)
  • Pre-active teaching involves the following steps:
  • Application phase (Inter-active phase)
  • Inter-active phase steps.
  • The phase of evaluation and feedback (Post-active phase)
  • The post-active stage tasks.
27 Jul 2022

What are the 4 stages of teacher development? ›

  • Stage I: Survival. Developmental Tasks. ...
  • Stage II: Consolidation. Developmental Tasks. ...
  • Stage III: Renewal. Developmental Tasks. ...
  • Stage IV: Maturity. Developmental Tasks.

What is the most important role of a teacher? ›

Dedication. One of the most important parts of teaching is having dedication. Teachers not only listen, but also coach and mentor their students. They are able to help shape academic goals and are dedicated to getting their students to achieve them.

What are the main duties or responsibilities of a student towards his or her school? ›

Given below is a list of ten duties that students should perform in school:
  • Obey the teachers.
  • Maintain discipline in the class.
  • Keep the school neat.
  • Greet everyone with a smile.
  • Be helpful.
  • Abide by the rules of the school.
  • Complete the assigned work on time.
  • Participate in the activities organized in the school.

What are the roles and responsibilities of support staff in schools? ›

The main role of support staff is to consider the ultimate goal as 'independence' for the child or young person in terms of developing socially and emotionally as well as in their ability to learn and work independently.

What are the three 3 most important traits characteristics or attributes a teacher should possess and why? ›

Some qualities of a good teacher include skills in communication, listening, collaboration, adaptability, empathy and patience. Other characteristics of effective teaching include an engaging classroom presence, value in real-world learning, exchange of best practices and a lifelong love of learning.

What are 3 types of learning styles give an example of each? ›

  • THREE LEARNING STYLES. Everyone processes and learns new information in different ways. ...
  • VISUAL. • Uses visual objects such as graphs, charts, ...
  • Tips for Visual Learner. • Turn notes into pictures, charts, or maps. ...
  • AUDITORY. ...
  • Tips for Auditory Learner. ...
  • KINESTHETIC. ...
  • Tips for Kinesthetic Learner.

What are 3 main types of learning? ›

The three basic types of learning styles are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. To learn, we depend on our senses to process the information around us. Most people tend to use one of their senses more than the others. The following will be a discussion of the three most common learning styles.

Is Sage Philosophy philosophical? ›

Sage philosophy is the philosophical thought that shows us ideology, in its traditional form, is based on independent tho entail critical attributes of communal consensus. and gathered information proving his philosophical thesis based on themes presented by the thinkers of each community.

What is a sage According to Confucius? ›

kings, but on the philosophical level, some Confucians, especially Xunzi, upheld that sagehood was a necessary condition for kingship.32. To restate, in Confucius's view, the sage is a paragon of rulers who rules morally. In other words, the attributes of sages were ancient, polit- ical, and ethical.

Who is the sage stoicism? ›

The Stoic sage refers to the person who is perfect in their practice of Stoicism. The sage, for example, meets the high Stoic standard of always acting according to virtue. As such, the sage achieves a state of eudaimonia and isn't susceptible to harm from Fate.

What is Paulo Freire philosophy? ›

Freire believed that knowledge and culture is always changing. He calls this historicity, the quality of being historical beings. As humans we are always caught up in the process of becoming. Reality too is historical and therefore always becoming.

What is difference between sage and philosopher? ›

A philosopher is a wise man distinguished for wisdom and sound judgement while a sage is a wise man distinguished for wisdom and from experience.

What are 3 qualities of the sage? ›

Sages are the stereotypical extroverts of the world. They are not shy and retiring especially if the Sage soul is young. Instead, they are outwardly focused, energetic, outspoken, exuberant, and larger-than-life.

What kind of person is a sage? ›

noun (1) ˈsāj. : one (such as a profound philosopher) distinguished for wisdom. : a mature or venerable person of sound judgment.

Who are the three sages? ›

The Three Sages are: Dokdan, the Wise (a.k.a. the Healer) Podan, the Humble (a.k.a. the Vagabond) Jakdan, the Worldly (a.k.a. the Drunkard)

Who are the 4 great sages? ›

The Four Sages is a group of four influential philosophers: Confucius, Buddha, Socrates and Jesus. Confucius represents Chinese philosophy, Buddha represents Indian philosophy, Socrates represents Ancient Western philosophy and Jesus represents philosophy in the modern era.

What are the 3 sage areas? ›

The Mount Myōboku, the Ryūchi Cave and the Shikkotsu Forest are called the "Three Big Unexplored 'Sage' Regions" (「仙人」三大秘境, "Sennin" Sandai Hikyō).

Why is sage called sage? ›

Sage's botanical name comes from the Latin word "salvere," meaning "to be saved." Once prized for its medicinal value, the most popular use of sage these days is in the stuffing for a holiday turkey.

How does a person become a sage? ›

Becoming a Sage

You become a sage by learning about many different things, taking time to think about them, and sharing your knowledge with others. In classical philosophy, a sage was someone who had the wisdom to understand the depths of existence and reality.

How do you know if you are a sage? ›

Here are 5 ways to know if you're a Sage archetype…
  1. You're the Yoda of your chosen field. ...
  2. You value wisdom, knowledge and truth above all else. ...
  3. Sometimes you come across as a bit of a know-it-all. ...
  4. Being a know-it-all is okay. ...
  5. Dumbledore is the Amy Poehler to your Tina Fey.
16 Oct 2018

What are the key principles of Freire's educational philosophy? ›

Here we outline briefly some of the key concepts in Freire's work.
  • Praxis (Action/Reflection) It is not enough for people to come together in dialogue in order to gain knowledge of their social reality. ...
  • Generative Themes. ...
  • Easter Experience. ...
  • Dialogue. ...
  • Conscientization. ...
  • Codification. ...
  • Banking concept of knowledge.

What is the purpose of education according to Freire? ›

For Freire, the key purpose of education was to liberate human potential, which could be achieved in part through the development of conscientização, a Portuguese term which loosely translates as “critical consciousness”.

What is the main ideas of Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed? ›

vocation to be more fully human”. In Freire's book, the oppressors' consciousness desires to “transform everything surrounding it into an object of its domination". The need to objectify humans is driven by their materialist nature, and the belief that “Humanity is a thing, and they possess it as an exclusive right”.

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