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The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Seventh Edition Chapter 10 The Play Years: Psychosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph. D. , Grand Rapids Community College

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Emotional Development n “Overall, emotional development is the foundation that enables all the other forms of development. …” (Campos et al, 2004, cited on p. 285 in textbook) Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Initiative Versus Guilt n Erikson’s third stage (3 -6 yrs) ¨A child wants to complete things successfully, and feels guilt at failure. ¨ Example: A child tries to pour juice into a cup and spills. n Some guilt is desirable. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Pride n Young children generally have a very positive self-concept and self-esteem. n They overestimate their abilities. ¨ Example: Every preschooler believes he/she is the brightest, smartest, fastest, most liked, best at games, etc. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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So proud! JULIA SMITH / GETTY IMAGES Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Intrinsic Motivation n Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual; it is the joy of personal accomplishment. n Adults can encourage this by not promising rewards for a task that is already enjoyable; instead, praise a job well done. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Emotional Regulation n Emotional regulation is learning to cope with and direct one’s emotions. n It develops as a result of brain maturation and experiences. PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Emotional Regulation n The development of emotional regulation is influenced by: ¨ Genes ¨ Early experiences (especially stressors) ¨ Culture ¨ Ongoing care ¨ Brain maturation ¨ Gender ¨ Attachment Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Externalizing and Internalizing Problems n Externalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress outward (e. g. , attacking others in anger). n Internalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress inward (e. g. , becoming anxious or withdrawn). Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Emotional Intelligence n Emotional Intelligence involves learning how to interpret and express emotions. n As the prefrontal cortex develops, children’s ability to regulate emotions improves. n Caregivers also play a role in teaching emotional intelligence. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Empathy and Antipathy n Empathy: a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another ¨ This results in prosocial behavior (e. g. , helpful, kind) and is helped by theory of mind. n Antipathy: a dislike or hatred of people ¨ Results in antisocial behavior (e. g. , aggressive). Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Brotherly Love JEFF GREENBERG / THE IMAGE WORKS Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Make it Real: Empathy n In what ways can caregivers help children learn empathy? Think of specific ideas. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Preference and Prejudice n Young children are able to show pride in their own “group” while avoiding prejudice of others. KATE BYERWALTER Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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The Importance of Play n It is natural and beneficial for young children to PLAY! n Jean Piaget said “Play is the work of the child. ” n Children LEARN through play (and also relieve stress). Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Types of Play n Solitary = play alone n Onlooker = watch others n Parallel = play with similar toys in similar ways, but don’t interact n Associative = interact and share emotions, but not in same game (e. g. , outdoor play) Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Types of Play (cont. ) n Cooperative = play together, with common goal, taking turns (e. g. , Checkers) n Rough and tumble = mimics aggression, but is in fun (“play face”) ¨ It usually requires social experience among participants, and enough physical space to play. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Quiz: How do you know this isn’t an aggressive encounter? LAURA DWIGHT Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Importance of Play: Part II n It is imperative that society continues to value the importance of all types of play among young children. n Intellectual development is certainly important in early childhood, but so is ample time for free, unstructured play! Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Types of Play (cont. ) n Sociodramatic Play = Pretend play in which children act out self-created roles and themes n Examples: Playing house, doctor, superheroes, or school n Think: why might children enjoy this type of play? What benefits might there be? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Types of Play (cont. ) n Sociodramatic play helps children: ¨ Explore and rehearse social roles they have observed (e. g. , playing the “Dad”) ¨ Regulate emotions through imagination (e. g. , the powerful feeling of being a superhero) ¨ Learn to negotiate and cooperate with others Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Quiz: What type of play is this? FELICIA MARTINEZ / PHOTOEDIT, INC. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Make it Real: Coping with Anger n What can caregivers do to help children cope with anger, and lessen the amount of aggression children display? LAURA DWIGHT Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Aggression n All children experience the emotion of anger, but aggression involves hostile attitudes and hurtful, destructive behavior towards others. n Some types of aggression are more troublesome and long-lasting than others (see next slide). Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Types of Aggression n Instrumental: Used to obtain an object such as a toy ¨ This is common among young children, and becomes less prevalent with age. n Reactive: Retaliation for an act, whether or not it was intentional ¨ This indicates a lack of emotional regulation. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Types of Aggression (cont. ) n Relational: Insults or social rejection intended to hurt another ¨ Example: n “You can’t come to my party. ” Bullying: Unprovoked, repeated attack to inflict physical or mental harm Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Make it Real: Parenting n In your opinion, how influential is a parent to a child’s development? PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Parenting Styles n Diana Baumrind found that parents differ on four dimensions of parenting: ¨ Expressions ¨ Strategies ¨ Quality of warmth for discipline of communication ¨ Expectations for maturity Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Authoritative Style n High Warmth n High level of communication n Moderate expectations for maturity n Discipline strategies involve much discussion, firm but fair limits Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Authoritarian Style n Little Warmth n Communication is one way (commands of parent) n Very high expectations for maturity n Strict, often physical discipline strategies Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Permissive Style n High warmth n High amount of communication n Few to no expectations n Little to no discipline Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Parenting Styles: Quick Review Suppose a teenager came in late for curfew… n How would each of Baumrind’s 3 main parenting styles handle the situation? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Outcomes of Parenting Styles n Which parenting style would you guess is associated with the following outcomes? ¨ Children are obedient, not happy ¨ Children lack self-control, are not happy ¨ Children are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Outcomes of Parenting Styles n Authoritarian: Children are obedient, not especially happy n Permissive: Children lack self-control, are the least happy n Authoritative: Children are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Make it Real: Discipline n Anyone working with young children needs to have a set of tools in mind for discipline. n What discipline strategies have you heard about or used? LAURA DWIGHT Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Discipline Strategies n No one strategy is a “cure-all. ” n Techniques are often rooted in culture (e. g. , time-out is popular in the U. S. ). n All strategies should consider a child’s emerging self-concept and level of cognitive development. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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© THE NEW YORKER COLLECTION 2002 BARBARA SMALLER FROM CARTOON BANK. COM. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The Challenge of Media Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Question: The Challenge of Media Take a guess: n How much time a day do you think the average child under 8 years old spends watching TV or playing video games or computer? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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The Challenge of Media (cont. ) n Most U. S. children spend over 3 hours a day using media. n By age 3, over 25% of children have a TV in their bedroom. n 75% of low-income and 83% of higherincome children have cable TV. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Techno Homes–The Typical Child’s Home Contains: Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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The Challenge of Media (cont. ) n Several U. S. organizations have issued statements imploring parents to reduce children’s exposure to violent media. n Longitudinal studies have established a link between TV violence in childhood and grades in high school. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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The Challenge of Media (cont. ) n Overuse of the media takes away time for imaginative and social play, and reduces time for parent-child interaction. PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Question: Boy or Girl─So What? n Are males really from Mars, and females from Venus? n If yes, what makes males and females think, act, and feel differently? n If no, are gender differences simply exaggerated? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Boy or Girl: So What? n Sex differences = biological differences between males and females n Gender differences = culturally imposed differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Developmental Progression of Gender Awareness n By age 2 cognitive awareness of gender; gender-related preferences and play patterns are apparent n By age 3 rudimentary awareness that gender distinctions are lifelong n By age 4 awareness of “gender-appropriate” toys and roles n By age 6 well-formed ideas and prejudices about own and other sex Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Theories of Gender Differences n Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) ¨ Phallic stage = third stage of psychosexual development ¨ Identification = defense mechanism that lets a person symbolically take on behaviors and attitudes of someone more powerful than himself or herself ¨ Superego = personality part that is self-critical and judgmental Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Theories of Gender Differences (cont. ) n Oedipus (boys), Electra (girls) complexes of phallic stage ¨ Child develops sexual feelings toward oppositesex parent, wants to replace same-sex parent ¨ Child cannot replace same-sex parent, so wants to be like that parent ¨ Guilt and fear are resolved by genderappropriate behavior ¨ No longer a popular theory–often same-sex parent not present Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Behaviorist Theory of Gender n Gender roles are learned through observation and imitation. ¨ Examples: Who takes out the garbage? Who writes thank you notes? etc. RONNIE KAUFMAN / CORBIS Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Cognitive Theory of Gender n Gender schemas organize the world into “male” and “female” activities. n This is guided by an internal motivation to conform to sociocultural standards of gender. ¨ Example: “Is this a (boy/girl) thing to do? ” Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Sociocultural Theory of Gender n Children learn the preferred behavior for men and women in their society. n Androgyny = a healthy balance of male and female psychological characteristics ¨ Is considered a psychologically healthy way to be, and will most fully occur if society supports it Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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Epigenetic systems theory of gender n Gender typed behavior is shaped by BOTH genetic differences between male and female brains, and environmental influences Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 10

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