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The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Seventh Edition Chapter 2 Theories of Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph. D. , Grand Rapids Community College

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What Theories Do n A developmental theory provides a framework for understanding human development; it also guides research. ¨ Example: The idea that early experiences impact later development is a theory. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Testing the Theory n Researchers use the scientific method to test theories. ¨ Generate question ¨ Create hypothesis ¨ Test hypothesis ¨ Analyze data; draw conclusion ¨ Publish results Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Grand Theories n The “Grand Theories” were the first, comprehensive theories in psychology. n They focus on development as it applies to ALL individuals. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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The 3 Grand Theories n Psychoanalysis (Freud) n Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner, Pavlov) n Cognitive (Piaget) Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Psychoanalytic Theory n Key terms: ¨ id, ego, superego ¨ repression ¨ psychosexual stages ¨ unconscious mind AKG/PHOTO RESEARCHERS, INC. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Psychoanalytic Theory (cont. ) n Each psychosexual stage (oral, anal, etc. ) includes potential conflicts—how a person resolves the conflicts determines their personality and behavior. n Example: Too strict toilet training may create an “anal retentive” personality. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Erikson (1902– 1994) n Erikson created a theory of psychosocial development. CORBIS Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Erikson (cont. ) n Erikson’s theory has 3 psychosocial stages, in which people face “crises, ” or tasks, at different ages. n His theory focuses on the impact of relationships in shaping personality. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Behaviorism n Our experiences shape who we are. n John Watson (“psychology should be about things we can observe” ) n Behaviorism includes classical and operant conditioning, social learning Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) n Behaviors are learned through reinforcements and punishments. n Example: A child gets sent to room for hitting his brother. (Hopefully) The punishment will decrease the likelihood of him hitting his brother in the future. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Quiz: Name That Behaviorist! © SAM FALK / MONKMEYER ARCHIVES OF THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON SOVFOTO Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Social Learning n Behavior is learned through observation and imitation of others (modeling). n We model people who we admire. n Examples: Children learn aggression from TV, gender roles from peers and adults. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Cognitive Theory n Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages ¨ sensorimotor ¨ pre-operational ¨ concrete operational ¨ formal operational YVES DEBRAINE / BLACK STAR Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Cognitive Theory (cont. ) n Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance. n If threatened, how do we achieve equilibrium again? ¨ Assimilation: incorporate new events into existing schemas ¨ Accommodation: change schema Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Cognitive Theory (cont. ) n Example: A 10 month old learns that a red ball bounces. If given a blue ball, he will bounce it too (assimilation). If given a red tomato (which looks like a red ball), he may try to bounce it. He needs to accommodate his schema of round, red things. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Summary of Grand Theories Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Limitations of Grand Theories n In testing grand theories, it turned out that people are much more complex than the grand theories allowed for. ¨ Example: Not all children react to a reinforcement in the same way. n The theories ignored culture and genes. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Mini-Theories n Mini-theories focus on a specific area of development. n Example: a study of the development of motor skills in premature infants Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Emergent Theories n Emergent theories arise from several accumulated minitheories and may be the new systematic and comprehensive theories of the future. n Example: Results of many studies on motor skills in premies may lead to a new theory of motor skill development. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Sociocultural Theory n Sociocultural theory states that development results from the dynamic interaction between person and social and cultural forces. n Research often includes comparisons among children of various nations and ethnic groups. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Lev Vygotsky n Lev Vygotsky was a pioneer of sociocultural theory. COURTESY OF DR. MICHAEL COLE, LABORATORY OF COMPARATIVE HUMAN COGNITION, UC, SAN DIEGO Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Vygotsky (cont. ) n Guided participation—tutor engages learner in joint activities, providing instruction and direct involvement in learning n Zone of proximal development—range of skills learner can perform with assistance but not independently Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Epigenetic Theory n Emphasizes the interaction between genes and the environment—the newest developmental theory. n Genetic-environmental Interactions ¨ genes never function alone Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Epigenetic Theory (cont. ) n Genetic-environmental Interactions ¨ Each human has a genetic foundation that is unique. ¨ But, all humans have powerful instincts and abilities that arose from our biological heritage, through selective adaptation. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Genetic Adaptation n Selective adaptation: genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely. ¨ Example: Humans have genes that foster language–those may have helped us avoid lethal diseases. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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With, On, and Around the Genes n Epi = with, around, before, after, on, or near = surrounding factors ¨ epigenetic—surrounding factors that affect expression of genetic instructions ¨ Example: Height is affected by genes and nutrition. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Contributions of Each Theory n Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of importance of early childhood experiences. n Behaviorism has shown effect of immediate environment on learning. n Cognitive theory shows how intellectual process and thinking affect actions. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Contributions (cont. ) n Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the importance of culture in learning. n Epigenetic theory reminds us of the power of genes in interaction with the environment. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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So which theory is “right”? n No one theory explains all human development. n Eclectic perspective ¨ Approach taken by most developmentalists in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories rather than staying with just one. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Nature-Nurture n Nature: the influence of biology, genes. Nurture: the influence of environment. ¨ Example: Are you smart because of your genes, or your upbringing? n The real question is HOW MUCH influence each has, and how they interact. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Difference or Deficit? n Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether a behavior is simply a “difference” or a “deficit” for a child. ¨ Examples: When is a child “too thin”? Are only children “emotionally distressed”? Is unmarried motherhood a problem? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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Quiz Yourself: Theories n Which phrases regarding early development go with which theory? “intimaternal care is crucial” n “encourage infants to explore!” n “malnutrition may alter height” n “what will you reinforce and model? ” n “co-sleeping is part of our culture” n Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7 th Edition, Chapter 2

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