Psychosocial Development in Adolescence – Human Behavior and the Social Environment I (2022)

  • Describe the changes in self-concept and self-esteem in adolescence
  • Summarize Erikson’s fifth psychosocial task of identity versus role confusion
  • Describe Marcia’s four identity statuses
  • Summarize the three stages of ethnic identity development
  • Describe the parent-teen relationship
  • Describe the role of peers
  • Describe dating relationships

Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence

In adolescence, teens continue to develop their self-concept. Their ability to think of the possibilities and to reason more abstractly may explain the further differentiation of the self during adolescence. However, the teen’s understanding of self is often full of contradictions. Young teens may see themselves as outgoing but also withdrawn, happy yet often moody, and both smart and completely clueless (Harter, 2012). These contradictions, along with the teen’s growing recognition that their personality and behavior seem to change depending on who they are with or where they are, can lead the young teen to feel like a fraud. With their parents they may seem angrier and sullen, with their friends they are more outgoing and goofier, and at work they are quiet and cautious. “Which one is really me?” may be the refrain of the young teenager. Harter (2012) found that adolescents emphasize traits such as being friendly and considerate more than do children, highlighting their increasing concern about how others may see them. Harter also found that older teens add values and moral standards to their self-descriptions.

As self-concept differentiates, so too does self-esteem. In addition to the academic, social, appearance, and physical/athletic dimensions of self-esteem in middle and late childhood, teens also add perceptions of their competency in romantic relationships, on the job, and in close friendships (Harter, 2006). Self-esteem often drops when children transition from one school setting to another, such as shifting from elementary to middle school, or junior high to high school (Ryan, Shim, & Makara, 2013). These drops are usually temporary, unless there are additional stressors such as parental conflict, or other family disruptions (De Wit, Karioja, Rye, & Shain, 2011). Self-esteem rises from mid to late adolescence for most teenagers, especially if they feel competent in their peer relationships, their appearance, and athletic abilities (Birkeland, Melkivik, Holsen, & Wold, 2012).

Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Erikson believed that the primary psychosocial task of adolescence was establishing an identity. Teens struggle with the question “Who am I?” This includes questions regarding their appearance, vocational choices and career aspirations, education, relationships, sexuality, political and social views, personality, and interests. Erikson saw this as a period of confusion and experimentation regarding identity and one’s life path. During adolescence we experience psychological moratorium, where teens put on hold commitment to an identity while exploring the options. The culmination of this exploration is a more coherent view of oneself. Those who are unsuccessful at resolving this stage may either withdraw further into social isolation or become lost in the crowd. However, more recent research, suggests that few leave this age period with identity achievement, and that most identity formation occurs during young adulthood (Côtè, 2006).

Expanding on Erikson’s theory, James Marcia (2010) identified four identity statuses that represent the four possible combinations of the dimension of commitment and exploration (see Table 6.2).

Table 6.2

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The least mature status, and one common in many children, is identity diffusion. Identity diffusion is a status that characterizes those who have neither explored the options, nor made a commitment to an identity. Those who persist in this identity may drift aimlessly with little connection to those around them or have little sense of purpose in life.

Those in identity foreclosure have made a commitment to an identity without having explored the options. Some parents may make these decisions for their children and do not grant the teen the opportunity to make choices. In other instances, teens may strongly identify with parents and others in their life and wish to follow in their footsteps.

Identity moratorium is a status that describes those who are activity exploring in an attempt to establish an identity but have yet to have made any commitment. This can be an anxious and emotionally tense time period as the adolescent experiments with different roles and explores various beliefs. Nothing is certain and there are many questions, but few answers.

Identity achievement refers to those who after exploration have made a commitment. This is a long process and is not often achieved by the end of adolescence.

During high school and the college years, teens and young adults move from identity diffusion and foreclosure toward moratorium and achievement. The biggest gains in the development of identity are in college, as college students are exposed to a greater variety of career choices, lifestyles, and beliefs. This is likely to spur on questions regarding identity. A great deal of the identity work we do in adolescence and young adulthood is about values and goals, as we strive to articulate a personal vision or dream for what we hope to accomplish in the future (McAdams, 2013).

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Developmental psychologists have researched several different areas of identity development and some of the main areas include:

Religious identity: The religious views of teens are often similar to that of their families (KimSpoon, Longo, & McCullough, 2012). Most teens may question specific customs, practices, or ideas in the faith of their parents, but few completely reject the religion of their families.

Political identity: The political ideology of teens is also influenced by their parents’ political beliefs. A new trend in the 21st century is a decrease in party affiliation among adults. Many adults do not align themselves with either the democratic or republican party but view themselves as more of an “independent”. Their teenage children are often following suit or become more apolitical (Côtè, 2006).

Vocational identity: While adolescents in earlier generations envisioned themselves as working in a particular job, and often worked as an apprentice or part-time in such occupations as teenagers, this is rarely the case today. Vocational identity takes longer to develop, as most of today’s occupations require specific skills and knowledge that will require additional education or are acquired on the job itself. In addition, many of the jobs held by teens are not in occupations that most teens will seek as adults.

Gender identity: Acquiring a gender identity is becoming an increasingly prolonged task as attitudes and norms regarding gender keep changing. The roles appropriate for males and females are evolving, and the lack of a gender binary allow adolescents more freedom to explore various aspects of gender. Some teens may foreclose on a gender identity as a way of dealing with this uncertainty, and they may adopt more stereotypic male or female roles (Sinclair & Carlsson, 2013).

Sexual identity: According to Carroll (2016), by age 14 most adolescents become interested in intimate relationships, and they may begin sexual experimentation. Many adolescent feel pressure to express interest in opposite-sex relationships, even if they are not ready to do so. This pressure can be especially stressful for those adolescents who are gay, lesbian, bisexual or questioning their sexual identity. Many non-heterosexual adolescents struggle with negative peer and family reactions during their exploration. A lack of parental acceptance, especially, can adversely affect the gay, lesbian or bisexual adolescent’s emerging sexual identity and can result in feelings of depression. In contrast, adolescents whose familes support their sexual identity have better health outcomes.

Ethnic identity refers to how people come to terms with who they are based on their ethnic or racial ancestry. “The task of ethnic identity formation involves sorting out and resolving positive and negative feelings and attitudes about one’s own ethnic group and about other groups and identifying one’s place in relation to both” (Phinney, 2006, p. 119). When groups differ in status in a culture, those from the non-dominant group have to be cognizant of the customs and values of those from the dominant culture. The reverse is rarely the case. This makes ethnic identity far less salient for members of the dominant culture. In the United States, those of European ancestry engage in less exploration of ethnic identity, than do those of non-European ancestry (Phinney, 1989). However, according to the U.S. Census (2012) more than 40% of Americans under the age of 18 are from ethnic minorities. For many ethnic minority teens, discovering one’s ethnic identity is an important part of identity formation.

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Phinney’s model of ethnic identity formation is based on Erikson’s and Marcia’s model of identity formation (Phinney, 1990; Syed & Juang, 2014). Through the process of exploration and commitment, individual’s come to understand and create an ethic identity. Phinney suggests three stages or statuses with regard to ethnic identity:

  1. Unexamined Ethnic Identity: Adolescents and adults who have not been exposed to ethnic identity issues may be in the first stage, unexamined ethnic identity. This is often characterized with a preference for the dominant culture, or where the individual has given little thought to the question of their ethnic heritage. This is similar to diffusion in Marcia’s model of identity. Included in this group are also those who have adopted the ethnicity of their parents and other family members with little thought about the issues themselves, similar to Marcia’s foreclosure status (Phinney, 1990).
  2. Ethnic Identity Search: Adolescents and adults who are exploring the customs, culture, and history of their ethnic group are in the ethnic identity search stage, similar to Marcia’s moratorium status (Phinney, 1990). Often some event “awakens” a teen or adult to their ethnic group; either a personal experience with prejudice, a highly profiled case in the media, or even a more positive event that recognizes the contribution of someone from the individual’s ethnic group. Teens and adults in this stage will immerse themselves in their ethnic culture. For some, “it may lead to a rejection of the values of the dominant culture” (Phinney, 1990, p. 503).
  3. Achieved Ethnic Identity: Those who have actively explored their culture are likely to have a deeper appreciation and understanding of their ethnic heritage, leading to progress toward an achieved ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). An achieved ethnic identity does not necessarily imply that the individual is highly involved in the customs and values of their ethnic culture. One can be confident in their ethnic identity without wanting to maintain the language or other customs.

The development of ethnic identity takes time, with about 25% of tenth graders from ethnic minority backgrounds having explored and resolved the issues (Phinney, 1989). The more ethnically homogeneous the high school, the less identity exploration and achievement (UmanaTaylor, 2003). Moreover, even in more ethnically diverse high schools, teens tend to spend more time with their own group, reducing exposure to other ethnicities. This may explain why, for many, college becomes the time of ethnic identity exploration. “[The] transition to college may serve as a consciousness-raising experience that triggers exploration” (Syed & Azmitia, 2009, p. 618).

It is also important to note that those who do achieve ethnic identity may periodically reexamine the issues of ethnicity. This cycling between exploration and achievement is common not only for ethnic identity formation, but in other aspects of identity development (Grotevant, 1987) and is referred to as MAMA cycling or moving back and forth between moratorium and achievement.

Bicultural/Multiracial Identity: Ethnic minorities must wrestle with the question of how, and to what extent, they will identify with the culture of the surrounding society and with the culture of their family. Phinney (2006) suggests that people may handle it in different ways. Some may keep the identities separate, others may combine them in some way, while others may reject some of them. Bicultural identity means the individual sees himself or herself as part of both the ethnic minority group and the larger society. Those who are multiracial, that is whose parents come from two or more ethnic or racial groups, have a more challenging task. In some cases, their appearance may be ambiguous. This can lead to others constantly asking them to categorize themselves. Phinney (2006) notes that the process of identity formation may start earlier and take longer to accomplish in those who are not mono-racial.

Negative Identity: A negative identity is the adoption of norms and values that are the opposite of one’s family and culture, and it is assumed to be one of the more problematic outcomes of identity development in young people (Hihara, Umemura, & Sigimura, 2019). Those with a negative identity hold dichotomous beliefs, and consequently divide the world into two categories (e.g., friend or foe, good or bad). Hihara et al. suggest that this may be because teens with a negative identity cannot integrate information and beliefs that exist in both their inner and outer worlds. In addition, those with a negative identity are generally hostile and cynical toward society, often because they do not trust the world around them. These beliefs may lead teens to engage in delinquent and criminal behavior and prevent them from engaging in more positive acts that could be beneficial to society.

Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment

While most adolescents get along with their parents, they do spend less time with them (Smetana, 2011). This decrease in the time spent with families may be a reflection of a teenager’s greater desire for independence or autonomy. It can be difficult for many parents to deal with this desire for autonomy. However, it is likely adaptive for teenagers to increasingly distance themselves and establish relationships outside of their families in preparation for adulthood. This means that both parents and teenagers need to strike a balance between autonomy, while still maintaining close and supportive familial relationships.

Children in middle and late childhood are increasingly granted greater freedom regarding moment-to-moment decision making. This continues in adolescence, as teens are demanding greater control in decisions that affect their daily lives. This can increase conflict between parents and their teenagers. For many adolescents, this conflict centers on chores, homework, curfew, dating, and personal appearance. These are all things many teens believe they should manage that parents previously had considerable control over. Teens report more conflict with their mothers, as many mothers believe they should still have some control over many of these areas, yet often report their mothers to be more encouraging and supportive (Costigan, Cauce, & Etchison, 2007). As teens grow older, more compromise is reached between parents and teenagers (Smetana, 2011). Parents are more controlling of daughters, especially early maturing girls, than they are sons (Caspi, Lynam, Moffitt, & Silva, 1993). In addition, culture and ethnicity also play a role in how restrictive parents are with the daily lives of their children (Chen, Vansteenkiste, Beyers, Soensens, & Van Petegem, 2013).

(Video) Theories of Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE)

Having supportive, less conflict ridden relationships with parents also benefits teenagers. Research on attachment in adolescence find that teens who are still securely attached to their parents have less emotional problems (Rawatlal, Kliewer & Pillay, 2015), are less likely to engage in drug abuse and other criminal behaviors (Meeus, Branje & Overbeek, 2004), and have more positive peer relationships (Shomaker & Furman, 2009).

Peers

As children become adolescents, they usually begin spending more time with their peers and less time with their families, and these peer interactions are increasingly unsupervised by adults. Children’s notions of friendship often focus on shared activities, whereas adolescents’ notions of friendship increasingly focus on intimate exchanges of thoughts and feelings. During adolescence, peer groups evolve from primarily single-sex to mixed-sex. Adolescents within a peer group tend to be similar to one another in behavior and attitudes, which has been explained as a function of homophily, that is, adolescents who are similar to one another choose to spend time together in a “birds of a feather flock together” way. Adolescents who spend time together also shape each other’s behavior and attitudes.

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Peers can serve both positive and negative functions during adolescence. Negative peer pressure can lead adolescents to make riskier decisions or engage in more problematic behavior than they would alone or in the presence of their family. For example, adolescents are much more likely to drink alcohol, use drugs, and commit crimes when they are with their friends than when they are alone or with their family. One of the most widely studied aspects of adolescent peer influence is known as deviant peer contagion (Dishion & Tipsord, 2011), which is the process by which peers reinforce problem behavior by laughing or showing other signs of approval that then increase the likelihood of future problem behavior.

However, peers also serve as an important source of social support and companionship during adolescence, and adolescents with positive peer relationships are happier and better adjusted than those who are socially isolated or have conflictual peer relationships.

Crowds are an emerging level of peer relationships in adolescence. In contrast to friendships, which are reciprocal dyadic relationships, and cliques, which refer to groups of individuals who interact frequently, crowds are characterized more by shared reputations or images than actual interactions (Brown & Larson, 2009). These crowds reflect different prototypic identities, such as jocks or brains, and are often linked with adolescents’ social status and peers’ perceptions of their values or behaviors.

Romantic Relationships

Adolescence is the developmental period during which romantic relationships typically first emerge. By the end of adolescence, most American teens have had at least one romantic relationship (Dolgin, 2011). However, culture does play a role as Asian Americans and Latinas are less likely to date than other ethnic groups (Connolly, Craig, Goldberg, & Pepler, 2004). Dating serves many purposes for teens, including having fun, companionship, status, socialization, sexual experimentation, intimacy, and partner selection for those in late adolescence (Dolgin, 2011).

There are several stages in the dating process beginning with engaging in mixed-sex group activities in early adolescence (Dolgin, 2011). The same-sex peer groups that were common during childhood expand into mixed-sex peer groups that are more characteristic of adolescence. Romantic relationships often form in the context of these mixed-sex peer groups (Connolly, Furman, & Konarski, 2000). Interacting in mixed-sex groups is easier for teens as they are among a supportive group of friends, can observe others interacting, and are kept safe from a too early intimate relationship. By middle adolescence, teens are engaging in brief, casual dating or in group dating with established couples (Dolgin, 2011). Then in late adolescence dating involves exclusive, intense relationships. These relationships tend to be long-lasting and continue for a year or longer, however, they may also interfere with friendships.

Although romantic relationships during adolescence are often short-lived rather than long-term committed partnerships, their importance should not be minimized. Adolescents spend a great deal of time focused on romantic relationships, and their positive and negative emotions are more tied to romantic relationships, or lack thereof than to friendships, family relationships, or school (Furman & Shaffer, 2003). Romantic relationships contribute to adolescents’ identity formation, changes in family and peer relationships, and emotional and behavioral adjustment.

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Furthermore, romantic relationships are centrally connected to adolescents’ emerging sexuality. Parents, policymakers, and researchers have devoted a great deal of attention to adolescents’ sexuality, in large part because of concerns related to sexual intercourse, contraception, and preventing teen pregnancies. However, sexuality involves more than this narrow focus. For example, adolescence is often when individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender come to perceive themselves as such (Russell, Clarke, & Clary, 2009). Thus, romantic relationships are a domain in which adolescents experiment with new behaviors and identities.

However, a negative dating relationship can adversely affect an adolescent’s development. Soller (2014) explored the link between relationship inauthenticity and mental health. Relationship inauthenticity refers to an incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within a relationship. Desires to gain partner approval and demands in the relationship may negatively affect an adolescent’s sense of authenticity. Soller found that relationship inauthenticity was positively correlated with poor mental health, including depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts, especially for females.

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(Video) Chapter 16 Psychosocial development in adolescence

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(Video) PSY 235 : Adolescence: Psychosocial Development

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(Video) 8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

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Attribution

Adapted from Chapter 6 from Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective Second Edition by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license.

That’s what we are here to find out – Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE) – How do they connect? How does it shape us? Why do we think and feel the way we do?

Each chapter provides its own reference list; some Parts and/or Chapters of the text include lists of definitions.. Chapter 4, however, needs editing, e.g., “As the symbolic interactionist perspective discussed in Chapter 1 ‘Sociology and the Sociological Perspective’ emphasizes, shared symbols make social interaction possible.” This sentence is inaccurate, as the perspective is discussed in Chapter 3 “Theoretical Perspectives,” not Chapter 1, which this text titles “How We Use Our Expectations.” Another example, “…about equal proportions have no language at all or only pictures…” probably intends to state “…no written language at all…” based on the pie chart being described (p. 125).. Editing is needed in Chapter 14 on page 525, which refers to a “greater discussion on disorders affecting children” that will “take place in Chapter 5.”. When adapting chapters from other OER sources, it is important to ensure that material flows clearly and correctly.. The single long chapter in Part V, Chapter 9 “Heredity, Prenatal Development, & Birth,” is about 60 pages of reading that might benefit from being subdivided into two or more chapters.. The text contains occasional grammatical and/or editing errors, e.g., pages 283, 287, 289 and 308 (Chapter 9), and page 358 (Chapter 10).. Overall the text contains very few grammatical errors, but one section, I believe Chapter 5, contains grammatical errors.. Additionally, the first chapter includes a thorough explanation of the Ecological Theory, which is then referenced both by name and content in later chapters.

Summarize the overall physical growthDescribe the changes that occur during pubertyDescribe the changes in brain maturationDescribe the changes in sleepDescribe gender intensificationIdentify nutritional concernsDescribe eating disordersExplain the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of adole...

For girls, early puberty is associated with depression, substance use, eating disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, and early sexual behavior (Graber, 2013).. In a further study to better analyze the reasons for this change, Mendle, Harden, Brooks-Gunn and Graber (2012) found that both early maturing boys and rapidly maturing boys displayed decrements in the quality of their peer relationships as they moved into early adolescence, whereas boys with more typical timing and tempo development actually experienced improvements in peer relationships.. The approximately ten years that separates the development of these two brain areas can result in risky behavior, poor decision making, and weak emotional control for the adolescent.. Although eating disorders can occur in children and adults, they frequently appear during the teen years or young adulthood (National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2016).. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 556-572.. The adolescent: Development, relationships, and culture (13th ed.).. Adolescence, 43, 441- 447.. Adolescents, families, and social development.

Puberty is a period of rapid growth and sexual maturation. These changes begin sometime between eight and fourteen. Girls begin puberty at around ten years of age and boys begin approximately two years later. Pubertal changes take around three to four years to complete. Adolescents experience an overall physical growth spurt. The growth proceeds from the extremities toward the torso. This is referred to as distalproximal development. First the hands grow, then the arms, and finally the torso. The overall physical growth spurt results in 10-11 inches of added height and 50 to 75 pounds of increased weight. The head begins to grow sometime after the feet have gone through their period of growth. Growth of the head is preceded by growth of the ears, nose, and lips. The difference in these patterns of growth result in adolescents appearing awkward and out-of-proportion. As the torso grows, so does the internal organs. The heart and lungs experience dramatic growth during this period.

Summarize the overall physical growth Describe the changes that occur during puberty Describe the changes in brain maturation Describe the changes in sleep Describe gender intensification Identify nutritional concerns Describe eating disorders Explain the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of adolescent pregnancy. According to the University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center (2000), approximately 85% of adolescents develop acne, and boys develop acne more than girls because of greater levels of testosterone in their systems (Dolgin, 2011).. For girls, early puberty is associated with depression, substance use, eating disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, and early sexual behavior (Graber, 2013).. In a further study to better analyze the reasons for this change, Mendle, Harden, Brooks-Gunn and Graber (2012) found that both early maturing boys and rapidly maturing boys displayed decrements in the quality of their peer relationships as they moved into early adolescence, whereas boys with more typical timing and tempo development actually experienced improvements in peer relationships.. The approximately ten years that separates the development of these two brain areas can result in risky behavior, poor decision making, and weak emotional control for the adolescent.. However, researchers have also focused on the highly adaptive qualities of the adolescent brain which allow the adolescent to move away from the family towards the outside world (Dobbs, 2012; Giedd, 2015).. On average adolescents only received 7 ½ hours of sleep per night on school nights with younger adolescents getting more than older ones (8.4 hours for sixth graders and only 6.9 hours for those in twelfth grade).. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy: Miller, Benson, and Galbraith (2001) found that parent/child closeness, parental supervision, and parents’ values against teen intercourse (or unprotected intercourse) decreased the risk of adolescent pregnancy.. In contrast, residing in disorganized/dangerous neighborhoods, living in a lower SES family, living with a single parent, having older sexually active siblings or pregnant/parenting teenage sisters, early puberty, and being a victim of sexual abuse place adolescents at an increased risk of adolescent pregnancy.. The adolescent: Development, relationships, and culture (13th ed.).

Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development describes 8 stages that play a role in the development of personality and psychological skills.

Psychosocial Stages: A Summary ChartAgeConflictImportant EventsOutcome Infancy (birth to 18 months)Trust vs. Mistrust FeedingHope Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtToilet TrainingWill Preschool (3 to 5 years)Initiative vs. GuiltExplorationPurpose School Age (6 to 11 years)Industry vs. InferioritySchoolConfidence Adolescence (12 to 18 years)Identity vs. Role ConfusionSocial RelationshipsFidelity Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)Intimacy vs. IsolationRelationshipsLove Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)Generativity vs. StagnationWork and ParenthoodCare Maturity (65 to death)Ego Integrity vs. DespairReflection on LifeWisdomA brief summary of the eight stages. The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and 1 year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.. During the first stage of psychosocial development, children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection.. The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.. Success during this stage of psychosocial development leads to feelings of autonomy; failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.. Successfully finding a balance at this stage of psychosocial development leads to the strength known as competence, in which children develop a belief in their abilities to handle the tasks set before them.. This stage plays an essential role in developing a sense of personal identity which will continue to influence behavior and development for the rest of a person's life.. During adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self. Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and feelings of independence and control.. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction and becomes a central focus during the identity versus confusion stage of psychosocial development.

Previous

Adults, including physicians, find that many decisions teens make are disturbing and the adults feel frustrated at their lack of control over the teen.. By late adolescence, most families are comfortable with the youth's individuality and decision making skills.. For instance, an early adolescent may need to be reminded to take his daily medication while a middle adolescent should not.. Failing to recognize this move towards independence makes the physician prone to appearing as an "agent of the parent" and may make it more difficult to gain the confidence of the teen.. By late adolescence, teens are comfortable with the changes in their body.. By late adolescence, peer groups do not demand the same level of conformity.. A useful strategy for providers is to ask about the risk behaviors of the teen's friends, since teens are often more comfortable sharing information about friends than about themselves.. The values and morals of the early adolescent are those of the parents.. Usually by the end of adolescence, the teens' morals and values come back in line with those of their family.

social and emotional development in adolescents is often characterized by rapidly fluctuating emotions. In this article, we review changes and factors ...

Indeed, adolescence can be considered a sensitive period for social development, which might be partly dependent on the development of the social brain: the network of brain areas involved in social perception and cognition that allows us to understand others.. For healthy development, parental and caregiver input is a crucial component, especially during early development, whereas later in development the influence of peers becomes an additional important element of the social environment.. There is evidence that problems with peer relationships, peer rejection, bullying, and loneliness are risk factors for the development of affective conditions such as depression in adolescence.. It follows then that widespread changes in the social environment, such as enforced physical distancing and reduced face-to-face social contact with peers, might have a substantial effect on the brain and behavioral development during adolescence.. For example, adolescents who are living with high functioning families and who have positive relationships with parents or caregivers and siblings might be less affected by physical distancing than adolescents who do not have positive family relationships or who are living alone.. Nevertheless, many young people around the world currently have substantially fewer opportunities to interact face-to-face with peers in their social network, putting their social needs at risk of not being met at a crucial time of social development.. The process of emotional development gives adolescents the opportunity to build skills, discover unique qualities, and develop strengths for optimal health.. Hormones: These critical chemicals in the brain that bring about physical changes also affect adolescents’ moods and heighten their emotional responses.. The stress response kicks in more quickly for adolescents than it does for adults whose brains are fully developed and can moderate a stress response.. Self-management: By managing their own emotions, adolescents can establish positive goals and gain foresight into how their emotions can influence their goals and futures.. To improve their ability to manage emotions, adolescents must first learn to recognize and describe strong, complex emotions.. However, because the brain’s frontal lobe, which is responsible for reasoning, planning, and problem-solving as well as emotions, doesn’t fully develop until the mid-twenties, adolescents may find it difficult to manage their emotions and think through the consequences of their actions.. Over time and with the support of parents and helpful adults, adolescents can develop the reasoning and abstract thinking skills that enable them to step back, examine their emotions, and consider consequences before acting rashly.. Reinforce the positive aspects of your child’s social and emotional development.

Research psychosocial development theory in our guide, which says that people are shaped by and react to their environment.

Social workers typically know conventional and researched social work theories that are rooted in social work values and draw continuously upon these theories.. The third of Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development arises during the preschool stage, 3-5 years of age.. The fifth stage of psychosocial development is marked by an adolescent identity crisis.. Between the ages of 12-18, an individual develops a sense of self by experimenting with a variety of social roles.. Also called generativity versus self-absorption, the seventh stage in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory occurs during the ages of 40-65.. Although Erikson’s psychosocial developmental theory establishes a maturation timeline that has empirical support and is relatable to many, the theory falls short as a one-size-fits-all social work tool.

Adolescent's psychosocial development According to WHO data, the world now has more young people than ever. Of the 7.2 billion human beings who inhabit the ea

Adolescent’s psychosocial development. According to WHO data, the world now has more young people than ever.. Around 1.2 billion of these young people are teenagers between 10 and 19 years.. One of the fundamental changes that happen at that stage is the psychosocial development suffered by the individual.. The objective of this essay is to carry out an analysis of the stages, changes and the challenges of adolescent psychosocial development to determine what both components have (psychological and social) in the growth and maturity of the individual in the current context.. There is little consensus regarding when adolescence begins and ends, among other things, because although its beginning is generally associated with biological phenomena (puberty) and its term to psychosocial milestones (adoption of roles and responsibilities of adulthood), there is great variabilityindividual at the ages in which both occur.. Adolescence has been traditionally defined by the World Health Organization as the period between 10 and 19 years of age.. Decision making begins to involve more complex skills, which are essential for creativity and academic performance of a higher level.. The desire for the young man’s independence increases and decreases his interest in family activities.. The peer group acquires greater importance and the adolescent becomes more dependent on friendships as a source of well -being.. The central fact in this period is the affective distancing of the family and the approach to the peer group.. Increase in abstract thinking and reasoning and creativity skills.. self-image is no longer defined by peers, but depends on the adolescent itself.. Decrease in the influence of the peer group, whose values become less important as the adolescent feel more comfortable with his own principles and identity.

It appears that most teens do not experience adolescent “storm and stress“ to the degree once famously suggested by G. Stanley Hall, a pioneer in the study of adolescent development. Only small numbers of teens have major conflicts with their parents (Steinberg & Morris, 2001), and most disagreements are minor. For example, in a study of over 1,800 parents of adolescents from various cultural and ethnic groups, Barber (1994) found that conflicts occurred over day-to-day issues such as homework, money, curfews, clothing, chores, and friends. These disputes occur because an adolescent’s drive for independence and autonomy conflicts with the parent’s supervision and control. These types of arguments tend to decrease as teens develop (Galambos & Almeida, 1992).

Examine changes in family relationships during adolescence Describe adolescent friendships and dating relationships as they apply to development. Parental monitoring encompasses a wide range of behaviors such as parents’ attempts to set rules and know their adolescents’ friends, activities, and whereabouts, in addition to adolescents’ willingness to disclose information to their parents.. (Stattin & Kerr, 2000) Psychological control, which involves manipulation and intrusion into adolescents’ emotional and cognitive world through invalidating adolescents’ feelings and pressuring them to think in particular ways is another aspect of parenting that becomes more salient during adolescence and is related to more problematic adolescent adjustment.. As children become adolescents, they usually begin spending more time with their peers and less time with their families, and these peer interactions are increasingly unsupervised by adults.. Adolescents within a peer group tend to be similar to one another in behavior and attitudes, which has been explained as being a function of homophily (adolescents who are similar to one another choose to spend time together in a “birds of a feather flock together” way) and influence (adolescents who spend time together shape each other’s behavior and attitudes).. One of the most widely studied aspects of adolescent peer influence is known as deviant peer contagion (Dishion & Tipsord, 2011), which is the process by which peers reinforce problem behavior by laughing or showing other signs of approval that then increase the likelihood of future problem behavior.. However, peers also serve as an important source of social support and companionship during adolescence, and adolescents with positive peer relationships are happier and better adjusted than those who are socially isolated or who have conflictual peer relationships.. In contrast to friendships (which are reciprocal dyadic relationships) and cliques (which refer to groups of individuals who interact frequently), crowds are characterized more by shared reputations or images than actual interactions (Brown & Larson, 2009) These crowds reflect different prototypic identities (such as jocks or brains) and are often linked with adolescents’ social status and peers’ perceptions of their values or behaviors.. Adolescents spend a great deal of time focused on romantic relationships, and their positive and negative emotions are more tied to romantic relationships (or lack thereof) than to friendships, family relationships, or school (Furman & Shaffer, 2003) Romantic relationships contribute to adolescents’ identity formation, changes in family and peer relationships, and adolescents’ emotional and behavioral adjustment.. For example, adolescence is often when individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender come to perceive themselves as such (Russell, Clarke, & Clary, 2009) Thus, romantic relationships are a domain in which adolescents experiment with new behaviors and identities.. For example, adolescents growing up in one country might have different opportunities for risk taking than adolescents in another country, and supports and sanctions for different behaviors in adolescence depend on laws and values that might be specific to where adolescents live.. Even within the same country, adolescents’ gender, ethnicity, immigrant status, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and personality can shape both how adolescents behave and how others respond to them, creating diverse developmental contexts for different adolescents.. For example, the association between the CHRM2 genotype and adolescent externalizing behavior (aggression and delinquency) has been found in adolescents whose parents are low in monitoring behaviors (Dick et al., 2011) Thus, it is important to bear in mind that individual differences play an important role in adolescent development.. Cliques are distinguished from “crowds” in that their members interact with one another crowds: large groups of adolescents defined by their shared image and reputation homophily: a tendency of individuals to form links disproportionately with others like themselves deviant peer contagion: process by which peers reinforce problem behavior by laughing or showing other signs of approval that then increase the likelihood of future problem behavior peer pressure: encouragement to conform to one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude; usually considered a negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy adult authority sexual orientation: a term that refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same sex, another sex, or both sexes

Psychosocial Development and Social Context during Adolescence Laura Kastner, Ph. D. Clinical Professor Psychiatry

Teens and their parents aren’t the only one with extreme emotions… Adolescent health practitioners benefit from self-awareness and understanding teens. ” “A website on drug abuse cited these warning signs: • withdrawal • moodiness • increased family conflict • argumentativeness • over-reactivity to criticism • sloppiness in appearance • spending time isolating in room • poor attitude • disrespect • loss of interest in family activities.. Psychosocial development during adolescence • • Physical development Cognitive development* Social development* Identity development*. In sum, the impact of brain changes on adolescent reasoning, behavior and mood: • Decision-making models don’t apply in high arousal situations ( “cold” logic, as compared to “hot” arousal situations) • Impulse control reduction • Poor risk assessment • Executive functioning is compromised • Desire to escape boredom and negative affect by “revving” up and seeking stimulation • Parental disciplinary efforts at times of high arousal can result in explosive conflict. Adolescent development qualifiers: • Teenage behavioral “manifestations” are neither universal or inevitable, they are more probable • Although gender, culture and age differences among adolescents can be important, temperament is also a powerful predictor of behavior • What is interpreted as “normal” depends on the clinician’s psychosocial assessment, sophistication of knowledge about adolescence and personal “filters.. Social Development • Desire for increased independence • Preference for spending time with peers, orienting increasingly to peers for social influence and values clarification • Most teens are more “attached” to their parents, but they prefer the company of their friends • Individuation from the family • Cultural context plays a large role in determining diverse paths within these developmental and universal trajectories.. Adolescence : a period of high risk and high opportunity • Adaptive identity development for most, but can carry high risks and long term harm for others • Early adolescence as a time of particular vulnerability (school failure, STD’s, substance use) • Family cohesiveness and authoritative parenting are significant predictors for successful and safe adolescent outcome (Baumrind; Shedler and Block; Blum). Take homes • Remember your own teen vulnerabilities—it will enhance your empathy • Normal adolescent development is usually messy—so you’ll hear about messy behaviors and see them too—even when they are healthy!

Adolescents continue to refine their sense of self as they relate to others. Erikson referred to the task of the adolescent as one of identity versus role confusion. Thus, in Erikson’s view, an adolescent’s main questions are “Who am I?” and “Who do I want to be?” Some adolescents adopt the values and roles that their parents expect for them. Other teens develop identities that are in opposition to their parents but align with a peer group. This is common as peer relationships become a central focus in adolescents’ lives.

Parental monitoring encompasses a wide range of behaviors such as parents’ attempts to set rules and know their adolescents’ friends, activities, and whereabouts, in addition to adolescents’ willingness to disclose information to their parents (Stattin & Kerr, 2000).. Psychological control , which involves manipulation and intrusion into adolescents’ emotional and cognitive world through invalidating adolescents’ feelings and pressuring them to think in particular ways (Barber, 1996), is another aspect of parenting that becomes more salient during adolescence and is related to more problematic adolescent adjustment.. Adolescents within a peer group tend to be similar to one another in behavior and attitudes, which has been explained as being a function of homophily (adolescents who are similar to one another choose to spend time together in a “birds of a feather flock together” way) and influence (adolescents who spend time together shape each other’s behavior and attitudes).. However, peers also serve as an important source of social support and companionship during adolescence, and adolescents with positive peer relationships are happier and better adjusted than those who are socially isolated or have conflictual peer relationships.. Romantic relationships contribute to adolescents’ identity formation, changes in family and peer relationships, and adolescents’ emotional and behavioral adjustment.. Late starters who become antisocial during adolescence are theorized to experience poor parental monitoring and supervision, aspects of parenting that become more salient during adolescence.. For example, adolescents growing up in one country might have different opportunities for risk taking than adolescents in a different country, and supports and sanctions for different behaviors in adolescence depend on laws and values that might be specific to where adolescents live.. Even within the same country, adolescents’ gender, ethnicity, immigrant status, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and personality can shape both how adolescents behave and how others respond to them, creating diverse developmental contexts for different adolescents.. For example, the association between the CHRM2genotype and adolescent externalizing behavior (aggression and delinquency)has been found in adolescents whose parents are low in monitoring behaviors (Dick et al., 2011).. Podcasts : Society for Research on Adolescence website with links to podcasts on a variety of topics related to adolescent development http://www.s-r-a.org/sra-news/podcasts Study: Add Health website on one of the biggest longitudinal studies of adolescence to date http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth Video: A selection of TED talks on adolescent brain development http://tinyurl.com/lku4a3k Web: UNICEF website on adolescents around the world http://www.unicef.org/adolescence/index.html

Adolescence: a period needing special attention

female, 15-17, South Africa. female, 15-17, Switzerland. Gender not specified, 18–19, Mexico. If you feel well, you produce, you contribute, you are happy and you create a positive social environment.. Your health is not only your future but also the future of those around you.. Therefore, it is important to keep healthy to ensure my safety and the safety of others.. You can have a healthy body but an aching soul.. Health is life.. Being in good health allows you to really throw yourself into life.

Studies have found what was once deemed fact regarding the connection between adolescent physiological and social-emotional development is nothing more than fiction.

From Hall to current time, researchers are still trying to understand this complicated developmental period of life that changes both the physical body and the social and emotional state of being.. Because puberty is not a “one size fits all” experience for young adolescents, nor does it occur all at once but instead over time; puberty should be recognized as a unique stage of development with constantly changing variability (Blakemore et al., 2010; Dorn, 2006; Lerner & Galambos, 1998).. Hall (1904), Tanner (1962), and Simmons and Blyth (1987) all discussed the increase of these impulse control behaviors in their texts giving a variety of rationales for the rise, but until the neurosciences became involved the rationales were speculation at best.. It is noted repeatedly that adolescents are beginning to read the cues of others by learning how to respond in more interpersonal relationships and this regard for other’s opinions can impact socio-emotional development in both positive and negative ways (Steinberg & Morris, 2001; Yurgelun-Todd, 2007; Burnett et al., 2010).. Instead social situations have been found to be more responsible for moody behavior than actual hormone levels (Steinberg & Morris, 2001; Lerner & Galambos, 1998; Buchanan et al., 1992).. Fact or Fiction: Young adolescents are too young to be developing their identities.. Erikson’s (1963) adolescence stage of psychosocial development “identity versus role confusion” discusses the importance of identity establishment during adolescence; he suggested that most adolescents will achieve some form of identity regarding who they are as individuals during this stage.. Concerning gender identity development, the physical changes that occur during puberty can “affect self-perception and interpersonal relationships” (Jones, et al., 2014, p. 446).. Adolescent development.

Videos

1. Adolescence: Crash Course Psychology #20
(CrashCourse)
2. Psychosocial Development in Adolescence
(Kizza Yvonne Alforque)
3. Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development Explained
(Learn My Test)
4. CHDV 100 adolescent psychosocial development
(Jolie Van Schoik)
5. Everything You Need to Know About Incels | William Costello 159
(Mikhaila Peterson)
6. Physical development in adolescence | Behavior | MCAT | Khan Academy
(khanacademymedicine)

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Introduction: My name is Melvina Ondricka, I am a helpful, fancy, friendly, innocent, outstanding, courageous, thoughtful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.