Moral Development - learn & understand it online (2023)

Is it okay to lie? Can a good person do bad things? If a person does something bad, does that make them a bad person? How do we determine what is good and bad or right and wrong? All of these are great questions about morality and moral development!

  • What is moral development?
  • What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
  • What are the levels and stages of Kohlberg's theory?
  • What are some other theories of moral development?
  • What factors influence moral development?

Definition of Moral Development

It can feel like nothing brings people together or divides them like moral or ethical values. Our personal sense of ethics and morality is part of the core of who we are as individuals and serves as a compass for our behavior. We come together with friends and family based on shared values and beliefs. Sadly, we are often driven apart by these same beliefs. How does this moral part of being human develop over time?

Moral Development - learn & understand it online (1)Fig. 1 Morality, pixabay.com

Moral development deals with the way we identify right and wrong as we grow up and go through adulthood. It encompasses our religious and ethical values, and it influences our behavior and sense of social responsibility.

Before we dive into moral development, it is important to remember that morals are different from religious values and ethics. Religious values are the principles we live by that are based on our religious tradition. Our ethical values are the principles we live by in taking action on behalf of ourselves or others. Ethics are the practical side of morality. In other words, ethics determine what we do with our moral beliefs and religious values.

Ahimsa is a religious value of several religions native to India. It means to do no harm to any living thing (an ethical value) based on the moral value of non-cruelty in guiding our actions. It even encompasses things like not eating meat, since animals must be killed before they are eaten, which requires harm.

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

Moral development begins in childhood and continues throughout your entire life. In the 1930s, the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget concluded that a child's moral understanding grows as their cognitive abilities mature. Later in the 1950s, Lawrence Kohlberg developed a stage theory of moral development, including six stages that a person passes through as they mature. Kohlberg's theory is incredibly influential in the field of developmental psychology.

Kohlberg studied a group of 72 children from lower- and middle-class families, recording their reactions to moral questions. Based on this research, he put together his six stages and divided them up again into three levels. Remember, Kohlberg's theory is not just about childhood; his stages span all the way through adulthood. Interestingly, Kohlberg believed that most people do not reach the last stages! As we go through Kohlberg's stages, we will try to answer the question below:

Let's borrow from Victor Hugo's Les Misérables (1862) and ask an age-old moral question: Should you steal bread to feed your starving family? Hugo's main character Jean Valjean faced this exact situation. Your understanding of right and wrong determine your answer to this question. Those who believe it is always wrong to steal no matter the circumstances will say that it is wrong to take the bread. However, others may have a different view. They might believe that letting your family starve is the greater wrong, so it is right to take the bread to feed your family.

Moral Development - learn & understand it online (2)Fig. 2 Freshly baked bread, pixabay.com

Kohlberg's Stages and Levels of Moral Development

There are 3 levels in Kohlberg's theory: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional morality. Things get tricky when you add in the 2 stages within each level.

Kohlberg's Levels Stages and AgesDescription
Level 1: Preconventional MoralityReached around ages 8-9Focused on the self and self-interest.
Stage 1: Obedience and PunishmentRules are obeyed in order to avoid punishment.
Stage 2: IndividualismRules are obeyed in order to gain rewards.
Level 2: Conventional MoralityReached by early adolescenceFocused on how we are perceived by others.
Stage 3: Interpersonal RelationshipsMorality is determined by the opinions of others.
Stage 4: Maintaining Social OrderMorality is determined by following the rules of society.
Level 3: Postconventional MoralityReached by late adolescence, early adulthood, or later.Focused on higher levels of reasoning and viewing situations from multiple perspectives.
Stage 5: Social ContractMorality is determined by a democratic process of decision-making based on individual situations.
Stage 6: Universal PrinciplesMorality is determined by a nuanced, critical understanding of justice, equity, and duty.

Level 1 of Kohlberg's Theory: Preconventional Morality

Level 1 of Kohlberg's levels is reached by around 8 or 9 years of age. Preconventional morality is focused on the self and self-interest. The primary focus is on obedience. The main concern is to follow the rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards. Stage 1 of preconventional morality is called

obedience and punishment: Rules are obeyed in order to avoid punishment. Stage 2 is called individualism: Rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards. At this level, children have an underdeveloped understanding of the needs of others and society.

(Video) Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral Development

8-year-old Jean Valjean decides that stealing the loaf of bread is wrong because it goes against the rules. He doesn't want to get scolded or punished, so he does not steal the bread.

10-year-old Jean knows that if he doesn't get into trouble his parents will take him for ice cream on Saturday. He doesn't steal the bread, because he doesn't want to ruin his chances for ice cream. He isn't able to understand the reality of the starving people he could help by stealing the bread.

Level 2 of Kohlberg's Theory: Conventional Morality

The second level of Kohlberg's theory is reached by early adolescence. Conventional Morality is focused on maintaining the social structure. There is an increased focus on membership within society and earning the approval of others. The primary focus is on how we are perceived by others.

Stage 3 of conventional morality is called interpersonal relationships: Answers to moral questions are influenced primarily by the approval of others. The "good child" identity is central to this stage.

(Video) Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory - Simplest Explanation ever

Stage 4 is called maintaining social order: Decisions are based on respecting authority and doing right by society, not just the individual. Feelings of guilt about decisions play a central role at this stage.

12-year-old Jean knows that his parents will be upset with him if he steals the bread. They will disapprove of his actions and think of him as a "bad boy." Their approval matters most to him, so he does not steal the bread.

14-year-old Jean still cares about what his parents think, but he's also concerned about other people's opinions. What if everyone thinks of him as a thief? Society's approval means the most to him, so he decides not to steal the bread.

Level 3 of Kohlberg's Theory: Postconventional Morality

This is the final level in Kohlberg's theory, and it is reached around late adolescence, early adulthood, or later in life. In the postconventional morality stage, we draw our moral reasoning from broad principles that extend beyond the scope of societal rules. This stage involves a higher level of reasoning and considering multiple perspectives on the issue.

Stage 5 is called the social contract: Morality is determined by a democratic process that ways individual needs and beliefs against the needs of society. Laws or rules are viewed as changeable in order to support the greatest number of people. Justice, the fair conclusion of differences or conflicts, becomes important at this level. Stage 6 is called universal principles: Morality is determined by a nuanced, critical understanding of justice, equity, and duty. Decision-making extends beyond a single moral act to consider the implications and personal responsibility.

19-year-old Jean decides to steal the bread. Sure, stealing is wrong, but letting a family starve is surely much worse. Many people will benefit from this one loaf of bread, and their lives are more valuable than the bread or the potential consequences of stealing it.

30-year-old Jean steals the bread. The next day, he approaches the bakery owner and proposes a system that will allow all of the old bread to go directly to families in need instead of in the garbage bin. He also wrote to his community leaders to address the issue of poverty in the community. Jean recognizes that the issue of stealing bread to feed the hungry has implications beyond a single action, and he feels personally responsible to do whatever he can to make the world a more just place.

While the goal is to rise through all of the stages of this model, Kohlberg believed that many people stay in the second level of conventional morality. Morality in action is the hard work of moral development.

Are you wondering what Victor Hugo's Jean Valjean decided to do? Well, the 26-year-old Jean decided to steal the bread, and he was sentenced to many years in prison for it. His sentence was incredibly severe given the nature of his crime and his motivation. His sentence was unjust. Eventually, once he was released from prison at age 46, he began helping others who were victims of injustice.

Other Theories of Moral Development

Kohlberg's theory is built on a Westernized, individualist moral value system and does not apply the same way in all other cultures. Societies with a collectivistic moral value system may develop moral reasoning much differently than Americans. Additionally, men and women are socialized differently to foster adopting certain values more strongly than others. Kohlberg's research sample was primarily male!

(Video) Monkeys and Morality: Crash Course Psychology #19

An individualistic moral value system centers on the individual as the moral decision-maker and the basis for moral decisions. This is more prevalent in Western, industrialized countries.

A collectivistic moral value system centers on the family, community, and country as the moral decision-makers and bases for moral decisions.

Ron is a high school senior from Ohio. He received two full scholarships for college: One to his local university and another to a school in California. Ron's mom is a single parent, so he decides to stay in Ohio to help her out at home. Ron's mom thinks this is a bad decision. She wants her son to have new experiences and enjoy this unique opportunity, even if things are harder for her.

Yuna is a high school senior in Ulsan, South Korea. She received two scholarships as well: One to her local university and another to a school in Seoul, an exciting capital city. Yuna's mom is a single parent, so Yuna also decides to stay local for college so she can help out her mom. Yuna's mom is proud of her daughter's decision and approves of her decision to stay closer to home.

Behavior happens in a social context. Society plays a large role in what we think is acceptable or unacceptable behavior. There are two theories of social moral development: Carol Gilligan's theory and the moral intuition theory.

Gender and Moral Development Theory

Psychologist Carol Gilligan (1996) believed there is a significant difference between the moral values of men and women due to socialization. She asserted that men favor a morality of justice and understand morality more in terms of sweeping concepts like law, fairness, and justice. Women have a more interpersonal understanding of morality, focusing on the good of an individual within a group or relationship. This is sometimes called a morality of caring since it fosters a strong sense of compassion. Gilligan said that because Kohlberg's theory focused mostly on broad concepts like justice, it does not adequately represent moral development in women.

Mia and John are married. Their neighbors, the O'Brians, are struggling financially and might lose their house. Mia uses an interpersonal approach to help her neighbors and starts a community fundraiser for the O'Brians. She wants to help the family directly. John contacts his local representatives. He hopes to address the structure of financial inequity in the community as a whole rather than only one individual case.

(Video) Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Explained!

Moral Intuition Theory

Other researchers describe a moral intuition theory of morality, believing that our moral behavior is largely based on automatic, gut reactions. This model suggests that our moral actions are directed by emotion because our moral reactions and decisions do not always line up with our stated moral beliefs or values. Moral intuition theory states that people often override their moral reasoning and react from emotion or gut reactions. Gut reactions are automatic physiological reactions to a situation or action that happen before we have a chance to use reasoning.

There is a famous scenario in moral philosophy called The Trolley Problem created by Philippa Foot (1967). A trolley is speeding toward five people who are working on the track. You could flip a switch and redirect the trolley onto a second track where only one person is working. There is no way to stop the trolley; either one person will be killed or five. Most people reason that five lives lost is worse than one, so they decide to flip the switch and send the trolley down the second track.

What if instead of flipping a switch you had to push someone in front of the trolley to save the five people? The decision is still between five lives or one, but you now have to take more direct action. Most people immediately respond that pushing the person onto the track is wrong. They react from emotion rather than reasoning. Pushing someone onto a track to be killed by a train causes a gut reaction of horror, which overrides the reasoning of the decision in the first scenario.

Moral Development - learn & understand it online (3)Fig. 3 Trolley, Wikimedia Commons

Factors that Influence Moral Development

Many factors influence and shape our moral development. Gender socialization can play a significant role in shaping our moral beliefs. Carol Gilligan believed that socialization leads men and women to develop different pathways of moral reasoning. Our families play an important part in our moral development as well. Studies show that children who grow up in families that hold prejudicial beliefs about people from other backgrounds are more likely to hold prejudiced beliefs later in life. Families who believe in gender equality are more likely to have kids who grow up valuing fairness across genders.

Culture also influences moral development. Culture dictates societal opinions about what is acceptable to wear or do. It also shapes the way we view the consequences of our behavior and decisions. In some cultures, doing something immoral brings shame to an entire family. In more individualistic societies, one person's decision reflects more on the individual than the family as a whole. Religious or spiritual beliefs also influence our notions of right and wrong. Things that are forbidden in our religious traditions show up in our personal and societal philosophies. The things that are sacred or celebrated in our religious beliefs become parts of our moral compass or reasoning.

Moral Development - Key takeaways

  • Moral development deals with the way we identify right and wrong as we grow up and go through adulthood. It encompasses our religious and ethical values, and it influences our behavior and sense of social responsibility.
  • Moral development begins in childhood and continues throughout your entire life.
  • There are 3 levels in Kohlberg's theory, with 2 stages in each level: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional morality.
  • Psychologist Carol Gilligan (1996) believed there is a significant difference between the moral values of men and women due to socialization.
  • Other researchers describe a moral intuition theory of morality, believing that our moral behavior is largely based on automatic, gut reactions.
(Video) What Are Moral Emotions? Moral Development Theory Crash Course

FAQs

What is moral development Short answer? ›

Moral development refers to the process whereby people form a progressive sense of what is right and wrong, proper and improper.

What are the 5 stages of moral development? ›

Kohlberg's 6 Stages of Moral Development
  • The full story. ...
  • Stage 1: Obedience and punishment. ...
  • Stage 2: Self-interest. ...
  • Stage 3: Interpersonal accord and conformity. ...
  • Stage 4: Authority and maintaining social order. ...
  • Stage 5: Social contract. ...
  • Stage 6: Universal ethical principles. ...
  • Pre-conventional level.
Jan 22, 2021

What are the stages of moral development explain it in your own understanding? ›

The three levels of moral reasoning include preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. By using children's responses to a series of moral dilemmas, Kohlberg established that the reasoning behind the decision was a greater indication of moral development than the actual answer.

What is the main points of moral development theory? ›

Kohlberg's theory of moral development is a theory that focuses on how children develop morality and moral reasoning. Kohlberg's theory suggests that moral development occurs in a series of six stages and that moral logic is primarily focused on seeking and maintaining justice.

What is an example of moral development? ›

During this stage, moral development is influenced by social expectations or norms. A person makes moral decisions based on how it will affect their interpersonal relationships. For example, a child who acts nice or behaves properly to win the approval of others.

Why is moral development important? ›

Moral development helps you with improving your beliefs because it is possible to believe wrong things while growing up considering many times people don't bother telling you what is wrong or right. Many children don't get proper education about morality and ethics which leads them in the wrong direction.

What is the most important stage of moral development? ›

Stage 6: Universal ethical principle orientation

According to Kohlberg, this is the highest stage of functioning. However, he claimed that some individuals will never reach this level. At this stage, the appropriate action is determined by one's self-chosen ethical principles of conscience.

What are the 4 qualities of moral development? ›

There are some core parenting strategies that support a broad range of these characteristics of moral development. These include, but aren't limited to, moral reasoning, conscience, empathy and self-control.

What is the most common stage of moral development? ›

The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. Reasoners in the pre-conventional level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences.

What is the process of moral development? ›

Moral development refers to the process through which children develop the standards of right and wrong within their society, based on social and cultural norms, and laws.

How do we develop morals? ›

In a nutshell, we create our own definition of morality through our interactions the people around us. Ideas about what is and what is not moral are guided by our unique human reasoning and intelligence, and not just by our feelings or gut reactions.

What is the main idea of Kohlberg's moral development stage? ›

According to Kohlberg, children early in their middle childhood stage of development will typically display "Preconventional" moral reasoning. Children displaying preconventional moral reasoning have internalized basic culturally prescribed rules governing right and wrong behavior.

What are the three most important factors in moral development? ›

The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations.

What are moral developmental values? ›

Moral values are the key components of a person's character. They are personality traits guiding people to make decisions and judgements according to their own sense of what is right and wrong, based on collective and individual experiences.

What factors influence moral growth? ›

Moral development is strongly influenced by interpersonal factors, such as family, peers, and culture. Intrapersonal factors also impact moral development, such as cognitive changes, emotions, and even neurodevelopment.

What is a good example of moral? ›

Examples of Morality

Have empathy. Don't steal. Tell the truth. Treat others as you want to be treated.

What is a good example of a moral decision? ›

A good example of this would be the Christian commandment, 'thou shalt not kill. ' A person who believes in absolute morality would believe this to be true in all situations, even in the case of war.

What are two examples of moral values? ›

Here are the ten essential moral values that build character and instil positive behaviour in kids.
  • Respect. ...
  • Honesty. ...
  • Compassion. ...
  • Hard Work. ...
  • Kindness. ...
  • Gratitude. ...
  • Sharing. ...
  • Cooperation.

Why is moral important today? ›

They are what makes us humane. They are standards that help an individual choose for himself between right and wrong or good and bad. This understanding of morals is absolutely necessary for anyone to make honest, credible, and fair decisions and relations in their daily lives.

How can moral development be improved? ›

Developing a moral future
  1. encourage sharing between your child and others.
  2. emphasise similarities between groups, not differences.
  3. read children stories with a diverse range of human and non-human main characters.
  4. explain why something is wrong, rather than just stating it's wrong.
Jun 11, 2018

What has the strongest influence on moral development? ›

Induction. Perhaps the single most powerful parental influence on children's moral development is induction. Explaining parental behavior and its implications for the child and others is linked to greater empathy, more highly developed conscience, higher levels of moral reasoning, and altruism.

How do you define morals? ›

Morals are the prevailing standards of behavior that enable people to live cooperatively in groups. Moral refers to what societies sanction as right and acceptable. Most people tend to act morally and follow societal guidelines.

How many moral developments are there? ›

The six stages of moral development occur in phases of pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional morality. For his studies, Kohlberg relied on stories such as the Heinz dilemma and was interested in how individuals would justify their actions if placed in similar moral dilemmas.

What are the 5 core moral values? ›

The universal values our group discovered through this process were: respect, responsibility, fairness, honesty, and compassion (hereinafter “Core Moral Values”).

What are moral skills? ›

One could say that a moral skill is simply the amalgamation of certain skills for the purpose of acting according to certain principles or rules, such as obligation, duty, right and wrong, and so forth.

What is the first level of moral development? ›

Levels and Stages of Moral Development

The first level of morality, preconventional morality, can be further divided into two stages: obedience and punishment, and individualism and exchange.

What age does moral development start? ›

Children's experiences at home, the environment around them, and their physical, cognitive, emotional, and social skills influence their developing sense of right vs. wrong. Between the ages of 2 and 5, many children start to show morally-based behaviors and beliefs.

How many stages of moral development are there in each level? ›

By analyzing the reasons that the subjects gave for their judgments (more than the judgments themselves), Kohlberg identified three major levels of moral judgment, each of which he divided into two stages, for a total of six successive stages in which each individual takes increasing account of other people in his or ...

What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development examples? ›

The morality of an action depends heavily on peer approval. Example: I better not drink and drive because my friends will think less of me and I, in turn, will think less of myself. 4. How moral an action is depends on how well it conforms to society's rules; the emphasis at this level is on maintaining social order.

Why is Kohlberg's theory of moral development important for teachers? ›

By following Kohlberg's theory of moral development stages, teachers can understand their students best. As the theory has contributed to every stage of growth of a child, teachers can analyse their students' behaviour. It will help them change their teaching methodology with the children's growing age.

Why is moral development important in early childhood? ›

Knowing good moral values such as kindness, humility, courage, and compassion at an early age builds a child's character. It forms the very core of their being and becomes a foundation of their moral beliefs. This is why it's essential to start teaching them moral values while they're still children.

What happens to a child who lacks good moral development? ›

Social Learning

Lacking a moral compass, these youth may never reach their full potential and may find it difficult to form meaningful and rewarding relationships with others.

How does feeling affect moral behavior? ›

As the self reflects upon the self, moral self-conscious emotions provide immediate punishment (or reinforcement) of behavior. In effect, shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride function as an emotional moral barometer, providing immediate and salient feedback on our social and moral acceptability.

What are the three key moral principles? ›

Three basic principles, among those generally accepted in our cultural tradition, are particularly relevant to the ethics of research involving human subjects: the principles of respect of persons, beneficence and justice. These are based on the Belmont Report.

How is moral behavior develop in our self? ›

Through the process of reasoning and judgment, an individual is able evaluate interpret the moral situation, formulate the moral ideal and choose a course of action that corresponds to one's moral values. Thus, higher order moral reasoning may lead to greater likelihood of moral behavior.

How do you apply moral in your daily life? ›

We ought to treat others with kindness, compassion, respect, and so on. In other words, an ethical person practices applying virtues, our character traits, in making everyday decisions. Virtues are the positive traits of character that inform our ethical being. Integrity is the bedrock of virtue.

What can influence a moral decision? ›

They found that individual factors, such as gender, intent, locus of control, and organizational factors such as culture and climate and codes of ethics can influence individuals' moral decision making.

How does society influence moral development? ›

Social norms, both implicit and explicit, guide individual behavior. From early stages of development and throughout life we learn to adapt our behavior according to social expectations and requirements, which may differ across cultures and may be relevant in various degrees for men and women of different ages.

What are the causes of moral issues? ›

The most common causes of ethical dilemmas may surprise you
  • Research reveals only 16% of ethical dilemmas mentioned were due to bribery, corruption or anti-competition issues. So what's going on? ...
  • Competing interests. ...
  • Misaligned incentives. ...
  • Clashing cultures. ...
  • Leaders lead the way.

What is moral development kids? ›

Moral development refers to the process through which children develop the standards of right and wrong within their society, based on social and cultural norms, and laws.

What is moral development quizlet? ›

Moral Development. - Involves changes in thoughts, feelings, & behavior regarding standards of right & wrong. Moral thought. - Addressed by Piaget in children's moral development. - Kohlberg developed a theory of how adolescents think about right & wrong.

What is moral development in school age? ›

Moral development is the process through which children develop proper attitudes and behaviors towards other people in society, based on social and cultural norms, rules, and laws.

Who defined moral development? ›

Jean Piaget has propounded the model of moral development in 1932. According to Piaget, children naturally progress from a form of moral reasoning based on the consequences of an act (e.g., punishment) to one that takes the actor's intentions into account.

What is moral in simple words? ›

Morals are what you believe to be right and wrong. People can have different morals: you might say, "I like his morals" or "I wonder about his morals." Your morals are your ideas about right and wrong, especially how you should act and treat other people.

What does moral mean in simple words? ›

ˈmär- : of or relating to the judgment of right and wrong in human behavior : ethical. : expressing or teaching an idea of right behavior. a moral poem. : agreeing with a standard of right behavior : good.

What is moral behavior? ›

Definition. To act according to ones moral values and standards. Children demonstrate prosocial and moral behavior when they share, help, co-operate, communicate, sympathize or in otherwise they demonstrate ability to care about others.

What are the elements of moral development? ›

We have identified seven elements of moral maturity: moral agency, harnessing cognitive ability, harnessing emotional resources, using social skill, using principles, respecting others, and developing a sense of purpose. This can be a starting point for a campus conversation on the goals of moral development programs.

What are the 4 stages of moral development? ›

Like Piaget, subjects were unlikely to regress in their moral development, but instead, moved forward through the stages: pre-conventional, conventional, and finally post-conventional. Each stage offers a new perspective, but not everyone functions at the highest level all the time.

What is moral development in life skills? ›

Moral development is the process throught which children develop proper attitudes and behaviors toward other people in society, based on social and cultural norms, rules, and laws.

How do students develop moral values? ›

Share Moral Experiences

Moral bedtime stories on topics such as honesty, justice, being helpful, etc., are good, but sharing positive real-life experiences is even better. Share such incidents from your life experiences to acquaint your child with those morals.

How can students develop moral development? ›

How To Teach Moral Values To Kids?
  1. Be Their Role Model. Children see their parents, teachers and other close ones and learn things from them. ...
  2. Teach Them Moral Values. ...
  3. Share Moral Stories With Valuable Lessons. ...
  4. Give Them Scenarios To Help Build A Good Character. ...
  5. Check If Your Kids' School Has Value Education.

What is moral development approach? ›

Moral development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood. In the field of moral development, morality is defined as principles for how individuals ought to treat one another, with respect to justice, others' welfare, and rights.

Videos

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