Development of Agriculture: 3 Stages (2023)

ADVERTISEMENTS:

From the point of development, Mellor divides agriculture into three stages. The stages are: 1. Traditional Agriculture 2. Technologically Dynamics Agriculture-Low Capital Technology 3. Technologically Dynamic Agriculture High Capital Technology.

Stage # 1. Traditional Agriculture:

“It is a technologically stagnant stage in which production is increased largely through slowly increased application of traditional forms of land, labour and capital.” The increase in output takes place through an essentially symmetrical expansion of all inputs or through increased input of the already abundant low productivity resources. Declining income and productivity per unit of an input is a common feature of this phase.

Policy in a Traditional Agriculture:

ADVERTISEMENTS:

When we find agriculture in the traditional stage, the obvious objective is to push it into the 2nd stage. This is because it is mainly in the 2nd stage that agriculture starts helping the industrial development of the company.

No doubt, if we look at the history of economic development of west European countries, we find that industrial development started even when agriculture was in the traditional phase. Agricultural production increase in the traditional phase through increase in the area under cultivation.

The increase in population was not sufficient to consume away the extra production. The extra production helped the industrial sector which helped the agricultural sector in term through providing improved agriculture inputs.

The development of agriculture necessitates more investment. More investment means more saving in the agricultural sector. If the population continues to grow, the total savings in the agricultural sector may not increase even when there is some initial rise in production per acre. The extra output may be consumed by the growing population.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

(Video) The History and Stages Development in Agriculture

In-fact, even when there is an increase in per capita productivity in agriculture in an under developed economy, this may not mean any increase in per capita saving as the income elasticity of demand in the agricultural economies is very high and whole of the extra output may be domestically consumed.

A backward economy, in-fact, needs special measures for controlling population because in the initial stages of development, the economy generally finds itself in a vicious circle of population growth: poverty living to more population; more population leading to poverty and so own. It is only with great effort that the economy is able to get out of this rut.

Not only does the growing population hinder the growth of saving in the agricultural sector, it also leads to sub-division and fragmentation of holdings making the use of certain improved inputs, even if these can be somehow procured from outside, more difficult. This is especially the case with many of the present day underdeveloped economies where it has become difficult to extend the land frontiers.

Stage # 2. Technologically Dynamics Agriculture-Low Capital Technology:

In stage II, “a complex of technological changes substantially increases the efficiency of agricultural processes and raises the rate of increase of agricultural production………. The critical characteristics of stage II, as compared with stage I is the constant generation and application of technology which is facilitated by a complex institutional framework…”

ADVERTISEMENTS:

In this stage:

(a) Agriculture still represents a large proportion of the total economy

(b) Demand for agricultural products is rising rapidly due to both demographic and income effects,

(c) Capital for industrial development is particularly scarce and returns are rising

(Video) Human Prehistory 101 (Part 3 of 3): Agriculture Rocks Our World

(d) Limitations to the pace of economic transformation and pressure of population growth preclude enlargement of the average acreage per farm and

(e) Use of labour saving agricultural machinery is largely precluded by unfavourable labour-capital cost relationships. These conditions call for a type of agricultural development which at one time not possible, but which is now facilitated by modern science.

State and the Second Stage of Development:

Once the agriculture of an economy has entered the 2nd stage its development, the objective state policy should be:

(a) To see that the various inputs which are responsible for pushing agriculture in the second stage of development are progressively utilized by all farmers and also continue to be made available to the farmers at reasonable rates, (this will necessitate a large-scale import for these input from outside through the export of agricultural products and also industrial products after the industrial sector is developed or the setting up of industries producing these inputs in the country itself);

(b) To popularize these inputs through demonstration, propaganda, etc.;

(c) Supply of credit to those agriculturists, e.g., small farmers, who do not have sufficient finances to purchase these inputs.

Stage # 3. Technologically Dynamic Agriculture High Capital Technology:

This is the stage when agriculture has much of its relative importance in the generation of the National Income. Agriculture of various developed countries is included in this stage. Government’s role in different stages is quite important. In nature, of course, it is different. We would like to highlight the objectives and important policy measures relevant for each stage in the paragraphs that follow.

It may be noted that as the stage of agricultural development cannot be very finely demarcated, the objectives of agricultural policy at a particular time, too cannot be defined rigidly. What we fined at a particular point of time is a set of objective, their order of priority, of course, changing as the time changes. We shall be giving below only the relatively more important policy objectives vis-a vis agriculture in different stages of development.

(Video) The 4 phases of retirement | Dr. Riley Moynes | TEDxSurrey

ADVERTISEMENTS:

Government and Agriculture:

If the process of development, as visualized when the agriculture as in stage II, continues, a time will come when both the agricultural sector as well as the industrial sector are highly developed through interdependence. This is agriculture in Phase III.

Such an agriculture has two major problems:

(1) The farm problem and

ADVERTISEMENTS:

(2) The instability of agriculture.

Farm problem, to describe briefly refers to the phenomenon of poverty among plenty in the agriculture sector. Agricultural production, in physical terms, goes on increasing as its development proceeds.

However, the income as a result of this increased production does not increase proportionately due to a low income elasticity of demand for agricultural commodities in developed economies. Per capita income of the farmers thus falls in relation to that of the people in the non-agricultural sectors.

(Video) Agricultural Development - Agriculture | Class 8 Geography

Instability of agriculture becomes more prominent in stage III because much of it occurs due to the developed nature of the industrial sector. A developed industrial, as we know suffers from the malady of booms and depressions.

As the industrial sector, at this stage of economic development, is very closely connected with the agricultural sector through purchase inputs from the agricultural sector and through sale of its products to the agricultural sector, these booms and depressions are transmitted to the agricultural sector also. The instability of agriculture thus, becomes more pronounced in this stage.

We can thus say that, in this stage, the basic problem is not to decide about measures needed for developing agricultural. It is rather how to tackle some difficulties created by economic development especially those emanating from the ‘farm problem’ or the ‘instability of agriculture’.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

Some of the policy measures suggested to be adopted for reducing instability is buffer stock schemes, price supports, direct income transfer measures, control of fluctuations in the non-agricultural sector, etc.

Control over production, transfer of labour from the agricultural sector to non agriculture sector, encouragement of exports of agricultural products to other countries and control over imports of agricultural products into the country are some of the measures to solve the ‘farm problem’.

Conclusion:

It may be noted that the preceding paragraphs only indicate the priorities that should be attached to various policy measures for agriculture in different stages of development. These are, however, not the only measures relevant for agriculture in a particular stage.

All measures of stage I, for example, are relevant for stage II also. Population control is desirable in stage III also. Similarly, some measures, particularly those pertaining to regional inequalities may be needed in stage III also if the development of agriculture has not been a balanced one.

The fact of the matter is that the Government has to ensure that besides taking certain steps on priority basis in a particular stage of agricultural development, the achievements of the policy measures followed in an earlier stage are not all, lost.

(Video) Agricultural Economics 9: Stages of Agricultural Development

Related Articles

FAQs

What are the developmental stages agriculture? ›

The stages are: 1. Traditional Agriculture 2. Technologically Dynamics Agriculture-Low Capital Technology 3. Technologically Dynamic Agriculture High Capital Technology.

What are 3 effects of the development of agriculture? ›

Agriculture contributes to a number larger of environmental issues that cause environmental degradation including: climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, dead zones, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

How many stages are there in agriculture? ›

Activities related to tilling of the land are undertaken at three stages - pre-sowing, sowing and post-sowing stages.

What are the three stages of agricultural development in Nigeria? ›

The development of the export sector of Nigerian agriculture may be classified in three different phases: transition, peak and de-agriculturalisation. Agriculture was introduced into the money economy by the colonial masters in the transition phase that ranged from the late 1800s to the early 1950s.

What are the 3 types of development? ›

All development requires approval, however as different developments have different levels of impacts, developments are grouped into 3 kinds. The 3 kinds of developments are: Complying; • Merit; and • Non-Complying.

What are the 4 stages of growth and development? ›

Infancy (neonate and up to one year age) Toddler ( one to five years of age) Childhood (three to eleven years old) - early childhood is from three to eight years old, and middle childhood is from nine to eleven years old. Adolescence or teenage (from 12 to 18 years old)

What are 3 major reasons agriculture is important? ›

Having more biodiversity results in healthier soil, less erosion, better water conservation, and healthier pollinators. This is all good news for the environment as a whole, making agriculture an important part of the cycle of life.

What are the types of agriculture? ›

Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into two main types. These are subsistence farming and commercial farming.

What are 3 problems of agriculture? ›

These three challenges – feeding a growing population, providing a livelihood for farmers, and protecting the environment – must be tackled together if we are to make sustainable progress in any of them.

What are 3 systems of agriculture? ›

There are three main farming systems for crop production: irrigated, semi-mechanized and traditional. Other farming systems are: livestock, fishery and forestry.

What is the first stage for cultivation? ›

To grow any crop, the soil has to be prepared. Preparation of soil is done by ploughing. It is a process of turning and loosening the soil with a plough. Sometimes, a modern tool called cultivator is used instead of a plough.

What are the 3 agricultural revolutions? ›

The Second Agricultural Revolution emphasized subsistence methods, while the Third Agricultural Revolution shifted to the commercial production of crops. The Second Agricultural Revolution involved the use of industrialized factory farming, while the Third Agricultural Revolution primarily focused on organic farming.

What are the 3 main components of an agricultural education program? ›

Agricultural Education uses a three-circle model of instruction. These are classroom and laboratory instruction, leadership development, and experiential learning.

What are the 3 parts of the 3 circle model in agriculture? ›

As the three circle model of Agricultural Education suggests, there are three important aspects to a total, successful secondary Agricultural program: classroom/laboratory instruction, FFA, and Supervised Agricultural Experiences.

What are the 3 measures of development? ›

The main indicators that measure economic development are: HDI - Human Development Index. HPI - Human Poverty Index. Multidimensional Poverty Index.

What are the 3 features of development? ›

(1) Development is the continuous process that takes place regularly. (2) The growth in the process of development varies from one person to the other depending on the health, genetic characters and the food they consume. (3) Development follows the correct pattern in the growth as infancy to the death.

What are the 3 main objectives of development? ›

There are three core values of development: (i) sustenance, (ii) self- esteem, and (iii) freedom.

What are the 3 phases of the growth cycle? ›

There are three phases of growth – meristematic, elongation and maturation.

What are the 5 stages of development? ›

Five Stages of Child Development
  • Newborn. During the first month of life, newborns exhibit automatic responses to external stimuli. ...
  • Infant. Infants develop new abilities quickly in the first year of life. ...
  • Toddler. ...
  • Preschool. ...
  • School age.
26 Sept 2018

What are the stages of the development process? ›

Understanding the seven stages of new product development

Idea generation. Idea screening. Concept development and testing. Marketing strategy and business analysis.

What is the role of agriculture in development? ›

Growth in the agriculture sector is two to four times more effective in raising incomes among the poorest compared to other sectors. Agriculture is also crucial to economic growth: accounting for 4% of global gross domestic product (GDP) and in some least developing countries, it can account for more than 25% of GDP.

Why agricultural development is important? ›

Agriculture plays a critical role in transforming economies to reach the goal, along with achieving other essential development goals like ensuring food security and improving nutrition.

Who is the father of agriculture? ›

Who is the father of agriculture? Norman Ernest Borlaug (25 March 1914 – 12 September 2009) was an American agricultural scientist, and humanitarian. He is considered by some to be the “father of modern agriculture” and the father of the green revolution. He won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize for his life's work.

What are 2 types of agriculture? ›

Agriculture is currently separated into two categories: industrialized agriculture and subsistence agriculture.

What are the 4 main types of agriculture? ›

There exist four main branches of agriculture, namely;
  • Livestock production.
  • Crop production.
  • agricultural economics.
  • agricultural engineering.

What are the four agricultural? ›

In this chapter, the Agricultural Sector is divided into four main sub-sectors, namely: 1) Crops; 2) Livestock (both production and animal health); 3) Fisheries and Aquaculture (including capture fisheries); and 4) Forestry.

What are the 3 main problems faced by Indian farmers today? ›

Average farm size, poor infrastructure, low use of farm technologies and best farming techniques, decrease of soil fertility due to over fertilization and sustained pesticide use, are leading contributors to low agricultural productivity.

What are problems of agricultural development? ›

There are increasing pressures from climate change, soil erosion and biodiversity loss and from consumers' changing tastes in food and concerns about how it is produced. And the natural world that farming works with – plants, pests and diseases – continue to pose their own challenges.

What is Stage 1 of plant life cycle? ›

The first step a seed takes on its path is germination. Germination is when the plant within the seed begins to grow with the help of water, soil and sun. As the process continues, the plant develops stems and roots.

What is the 3rd Agricultural Revolution? ›

The Third Agricultural Revolution involved hybridization and genetic engineering of products and the increased use of pesticides and fertilizers.

When was the 3rd Agricultural Revolution? ›

Third Agricultural Revolution (1930s–1960s), an increase in agricultural production, especially in the developing world (also known as the Green Revolution)

What is the 3rd Agricultural Revolution known as? ›

The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution (after the Neolithic Revolution and the British Agricultural Revolution), is the set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s that increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in ...

What are the 5 levels of agriculture? ›

Agriculture & Agricultural Practices
  • Soil preparation. Before raising a crop, the soil in which it is to be grown is prepared by ploughing, levelling, and manuring. ...
  • Sowing. Selection of seeds of good quality crop strains is the primary stage of sowing. ...
  • Manuring. ...
  • Irrigation. ...
  • Weeding. ...
  • Harvesting. ...
  • Storage.

What is the 3 circle strategy? ›

The 3 Circles are overlapping circles, representing your Customers' Needs, your Competitors Offerings and Your Company Offerings. Each of the areas of the overlapping circles represents a different element of how your customers experience your products and services, as well as your competitors'.

What makes up the 3 circle model? ›

Three-Circle Model Explained

The Three-Circle Model of the Family Business System shows three interdependent and overlapping groups: family, ownership, and business. An individual in a family business system occupies one of the seven sectors that are formed by these three overlapping circles.

What do you mean by 3 circle model? ›

The Three Circle Approach is a worldwide recognised standard model for successfully conducting family businesses. This is made up of three primary components: family, company, and ownership, and it is the foundation of any family firm. Strong communication and long-term commitment are seen in the business.

› What-are-the-components-of-ag... ›

There are different components of agriculture: * Crop farming - Growing of crops, mostly annuals) * Animal husbandry- Dairy and meat production * Horticulture -...
In order to not lose its investment in agricultural innovation, the Canadian government needs to bet on winning companies rather than giants.
This dependence on plant and animal domestication entailed a number of other environmental adaptations including deforestation, irrigation, and the allocation o...

What are the 4 stages of agriculture? ›

Contents
  • 1 Seeding.
  • 2 Seedling.
  • 3 Pollination.
  • 4 Irrigation.

What are the 5 developmental periods? ›

The 5 Stages of Child Development are Newborn Development, Infant Development, Toddler Development, Preschooler Development, and School-Age Development.

What are the 7 steps of agriculture? ›

The 7 steps involved in agricultural practices are mentioned below:
  • Ploughing.
  • Sowing.
  • Adding nutrients.
  • Irrigation.
  • Protecting plants.
  • Harvesting.
  • Storage.

What are 3 systems of agriculture? ›

There are three main farming systems for crop production: irrigated, semi-mechanized and traditional. Other farming systems are: livestock, fishery and forestry.

What is the first step of agriculture? ›

Ploughing is the first step in farming. It is done to loosen the soil and to remove unwanted plants present in the soil.

What are the types of agriculture? ›

Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into two main types. These are subsistence farming and commercial farming.

What are the 4 types of development? ›

Physical, social, emotional and cognitive development.

What are the types of development? ›

Physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and moral.

What do you mean by stages of development? ›

A stage of development is an age period when certain needs, behaviors, experiences and capabilities are common and different from other age periods.

What are the 2 types of agriculture? ›

Currently, agriculture is divided into two different types, including industrialized agriculture and subsistence agriculture.

What is not a stage of agriculture? ›

Sustainable agriculture is the method of growing crops by using the technique without harming the environment. Slash and burn farming is not a sustainable agriculture technique as they increase the air pollution by release a large amount of carbon dioxide.

What are the 3 parts of the 3 circle model in agriculture? ›

As the three circle model of Agricultural Education suggests, there are three important aspects to a total, successful secondary Agricultural program: classroom/laboratory instruction, FFA, and Supervised Agricultural Experiences.

What is agriculture explain its different stages Class 5? ›

Agriculture is a primary process in which production of raw materials take place... The different stages are showing, irritation, harvesting are the main stages you can also include plugging, and other process also if u want to go in deep.

What are the 5 components of agriculture? ›

The five components of agricultural revolution are Machinery, land under cultivation, fertilizers and pesticides, irrigation, and high-yielding varieties of plants.

Videos

1. 3 Stages of Growing Seedlings for Beginners
(Fraser Valley Rose Farm)
2. Introduction to Agriculture | Crop Production and Management | Don't Memorise
(Don't Memorise)
3. 75- Rostows | Five Stages of Growth with | Criticism
(Easy Learning Economics)
4. Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth | Growth & Development | Learn Economics on Ecoholics
(ECOHOLICS - Largest Platform for Economics)
5. How to Start a Speech
(Conor Neill)
6. HFS5/P1: Three Stages of Colonization in India- Merchantile, Industrial & Financial
(Mrunal Patel)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Fredrick Kertzmann

Last Updated: 11/30/2022

Views: 6647

Rating: 4.6 / 5 (46 voted)

Reviews: 85% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Fredrick Kertzmann

Birthday: 2000-04-29

Address: Apt. 203 613 Huels Gateway, Ralphtown, LA 40204

Phone: +2135150832870

Job: Regional Design Producer

Hobby: Nordic skating, Lacemaking, Mountain biking, Rowing, Gardening, Water sports, role-playing games

Introduction: My name is Fredrick Kertzmann, I am a gleaming, encouraging, inexpensive, thankful, tender, quaint, precious person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.