Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2022)


Main Text > Part I JAPAN'S EFFORTS TOWARD ACHIEVING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs) > Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)


Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (3)
Prime Minister Koizumi delivering an address at the UN General Assembly, September 2005 (Photo: Cabinet Office)

Key Points

- The MDGs are a synthesis of the United Nations Millennium Declaration and a variety of other past agreements. They consist of eight development goals, including poverty reduction, and stipulate specific numerical targets that must be achieved by the year 2015 deadline.
- 2005 was the first year for review of progress toward achieving the MDGs.
- Progress toward achieving the MDGs can be seen in East Asia, etc., while Sub-Saharan Africa is lagging furthest behind.

The Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) were set as common goals and objectives that the entire world must address in the 21st century. There are eight goals in the MDGs, including the eradication of poverty, universal primary education, reduction of child mortality, improvement of maternal health and environmental sustainability, and all of the goals have quantitative objectives and a target date of 2015. Almost all the countries in the world have committed to the MDGs. Progress toward achieving the MDGs is to be reviewed every five years, and the year 2005 was important as it was the first review year. Part I presents an overview of the MDGs and Japan's efforts toward achieving them.

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (4)
Millennium Summit (Photo: United Nations)

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (5) Establishment of the MDGs
At the United Nations Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000, which was attended by representatives of 189 countries from around the world, the United Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted as the outcome document of the summit. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, which addresses issues such as peace and security, development and poverty, environment, human rights, good governance, and the special needs of Africa, indicates a clear direction of the role of the United Nations in the 21st century. The MDGs are comprised of 8 goals which were set by integrating the above declaration and the various agreements adopted at past major international conferences and summits.1

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (6) The Content of the MDGs
The eight MDGs are as follows: (1) eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, (2) achievement of universal primary education, (3) promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women, (4) reduction of child mortality, (5) improvement of maternal health, (6) combat against HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, (7) ensuring environmental sustainability, and (8) establishing global partnerships for development. The MDGs are accompanied by 18 targets and 48 indices for measuring progress in achieving these goals. Together, they represent result-oriented quantitative targets focused on improving people's lives in developing countries. The year 2015 has been set as the target date for achieving the MDGs, with 1990 as the base year.

Japan has played an important role in the process of developing the MDGs. The MDGs are based directly on the International Development Goals (IDGs) formulated in the New Development Strategy adopted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC). In the process of developing the IDGs, Japan took the position that quantitative targets should be set in order to measure the outcome of development assistance. In addition, regarding the contents of the development goals, Japan stressed that: (1) the targets should be objective, achievable, and can be accepted by both the donor and the recipient countries; (2) targets should require the self-help efforts (ownership) of the developing countries; and (3) quantitative social targets, such as the reduction of child mortality, should be included in addition to quantitative economic targets. As a result of Japan's efforts, the viewpoints above were reflected in the IDGs and incorporated in the MDGs established by the United Nations.2

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Chart 1. Millennium Development Goals


Chart 2. Millennium Development Goals: Status as of 2004 (1)

Chart 2. Millennium Development Goals: Status as of 2004 (2)


Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (10) Progress Toward Achieving the MDGs
As the MDGs are priority development goals of the international community, all developing countries are urged to mobilize their domestic resources, and donor countries and international agencies are also called upon to extend active support. In order to maintain and strengthen the efforts to achieve the MDGs by the target year of 2015, it is important to conduct periodical assessment of the progress. For this reason, the United Nations has decided to prepare a comprehensive report on progress in implementing the Millennium Declaration (UN Secretary-General Report) every five years from the year 2005. The first UN Secretary-General Report was submitted in March 2005. Based on this report and other documents, progress of every goal is indicated in Chart 2.

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (11)
Speech by then Prime Minister Mori at the Millennium Summit (Photo: Cabinet Office)

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (12) Special Characteristics of the MDGs and the Approach to Achieving the MDGs
The four characteristics of the MDGs are as follows:

The first characteristic of the MDGs is that the MDGs are result-oriented development goals with quantitative objectives and a target date. A look at past development assistance shows that while some achieved a certain degree of results, others did not achieve satisfactory results compared to the amount of assistance provided. At the same time, there was a high pressure to reform the development assistance in developed countries because of decreases in ODA budget due to fiscal constraints, as well as beliefs that assistance was not effective enough. Consequently, this led to a movement to adopt a more result-oriented approach to development assistance, and thus quantitative objectives and target dates were set in the MDGs.

The second characteristic of the MDGs is that the MDGs call for self-help efforts (ownership) of developing countries. In order to enhance aid effectiveness, it is important that developing countries pursue development by self-help efforts (ownership), and that donor countries provide support (partnership). Based on this approach, developing countries are expected to take primary responsibility for their development efforts and to achieve the MDGs, particularly goals 1 to 7.

The third characteristic of the MDGs is that the 8 goals, which are interrelated, approach poverty from various angles and aim for a comprehensive measure to reduce poverty. For example, in order to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Goals 4 and 5), health-related measures alone such as providing medicine and fostering medical experts are insufficient. At the same time, the supply of safe drinking water (Goal 7), which contributes to improving the health of children by preventing infant diarrhea and other illnesses, and an improvement in literacy and general health education (Goal 2) in order to promote accurate knowledge of disease, pregnancy and childbirth, are necessary. In addition, for mothers to acquire a better understanding of health, it is important to improve female literacy rates and increase girls' school enrollment ratios. Thus, by promoting gender equality in the whole society (Goal 3), both men and women will be able to equally obtain the education and health care services they require. Due to differing gender roles in society and the family unit, there are differences in the development needs and the impacts of development for men and women. For this reason, promoting MDGs effectively requires that a gender-oriented approach be adopted toward all goals. As described above, the MDGs are interrelated even though they have been presented as development goals in different sectors. Thus a cross-sector approach is required in order to achieve the MDGs.

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (13)
Foreign Minister Machimura meeting with US Secretary of State Rice on the occasion of the UN General Assembly, September 2005

The fourth characteristic of the MDGs is that, although the MDGs present result-oriented indicators, they do not detail how to achieve the MDGs. Thus, determining what specific measures must be taken under what sort of approaches to achieve the MDGs is crucial for donor countries and international organizations.

The United Nations established the Millennium Project*1, headed by Columbia University Professor Jeffrey Sachs, as an advisory body to the UN Secretary-General and has been making efforts to develop a global strategy for achieving the MDGs. The project's final report issued in January 2005 proposes required measures to achieve the MDGs based on research and analysis of policy issues and implementations.

Chapter 1 Overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) | Japan's ODA White Paper 2005 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (14)
Professor Sachs delivers the final report to Kofi Annan UN Secretary-General (Photo: United Nations Eskinder Debebe)

The next chapter describes Japan's efforts and achievements regarding the MDGs and their results, and the approaches and strategies under which it has pursued these efforts.

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FAQs

What was the main goal of the Millennium Development Goals MDGs? ›

The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – which range from halving extreme poverty rates to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015 – form a blueprint agreed to by all the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions.

What are the Millennium Development Goals MDGs and why are they important? ›

The Millennium Development Goals set timebound targets, by which progress in reducing income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter and exclusion — while promoting gender equality, health, education and environmental sustainability — can be measured.

What are the 8 goals of the MDGs? ›

The 8 Goals
  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Learn More » ...
  • Achieve universal primary education. ...
  • Promote gender equality and empower women. ...
  • Reduce child mortality. ...
  • Improve maternal health. ...
  • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. ...
  • Ensure environmental sustainability. ...
  • Develop a global partnership for development.

What is the goal #1 of the Millennium Development Goals Report 2015? ›

GOAL 1:

The target of reducing extreme poverty rates by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. More than 1 billion people have been lifted out of extreme poverty since 1990. In 1990, nearly half of the population in the developing regions lived on less than $1.25 a day.

Are the Millennium Development Goals successful? ›

The upshot is that somewhere between 21.0 million to 29.7 million more people are alive today than would have been the case if countries had continued their pre-MDG rates of progress. (The range depends mainly on whether we use child mortality trends from 1990-2000 or 1996-2001 as the pre-MDG reference period.)

What are the 17 MDGs? ›

The 17 SDGs are: No poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, decent work and economic growth, industry, innovation and infrastructure, Reduced Inequality, Sustainable Cities and Communities, Responsible Consumption and ...

What are roles of sustainable development goals SDGs and how different from Millennium Development Goals MDGs )? ›

Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

What are the failures of Millennium Development Goals? ›

One of the major MDG failures is the fact that the success of the goals was not experienced equally across the globe; this in itself is a major defeat. Consider a few of these statistics from different countries concerning the same MDGs.

How many goals are achievable under MDG? ›

The MDGs were developed out of several commitments set forth in the Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000. There are eight goals with 21 targets, and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target.

How many basic goals are there in the MDG? ›

In September 2000, leaders of 189 countries gathered at the United Nations headquarters and signed the historic Millennium Declaration, in which they committed to achieving a set of eight measurable goals that range from halving extreme poverty and hunger to promoting gender equality and reducing child mortality, by ...

What is the focus of the human rights of the MDGs? ›

The Millennium Development Goals and human rights have ultimately a common objective and these are to preserve and protect human dignity through the achievement of a wide range of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights.

What does MDG 1 mean? ›

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger has three targets: 1. A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than a dollar a day.

How do I cite the Millennium Development Goals Report? ›

Suggested Citation

United Nations UN, 2015. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015," Working Papers id:7222, eSocialSciences.

What are the Millennium Development Goals for 2022? ›

The Report details the reversal of years of progress in eradicating poverty and hunger, improving health and education, providing basic services, and much more. It also points out areas that need urgent action in order to rescue the SDGs and deliver meaningful progress for people and the planet by 2030.

What millennium development goal can be achieved by suggesting improved quality education gender equality more jobs and more investment in agriculture? ›

Millennium Development Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. FAO recognizes the importance of promoting the full and equitable participation of women and men in efforts to improve food security, reduce poverty, and fuel sustainable rural development.

What are the 5 main elements of the 2030 Agenda? ›

At the heart of the 2030 Agenda are five critical dimensions: people, prosperity, planet, partnership and peace, also known as the 5Ps.

How can I be without poverty? ›

Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity.
...
The SDG Fund response
  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods.
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices.
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions.

What are the 3 main objectives of SDGs? ›

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Achieve universal primary education. Promote gender equality.

Why is language important in the Millennium Development Goals Brainly? ›

For the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be effective, all people need to be included. Language is the key to inclusion and at the center of human activity, self-expression and identity. This publication recognize the importance that people place on their own language in achieving the MDG Goals.

What would happen if 8 Millennium Development Goals were achieved? ›

If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment (2.

Was the MDG a success or a failure? ›

At least 21 million extra lives were saved due to accelerated progress. Our results show that the clearest victories during the MDG era were in matters of life and death. We calculate the number of lives saved beyond “business-as-usual” pre-MDG trends on child mortality, maternal mortality, HIV/Aids, and tuberculosis.

What are the issues and challenges in the MDG implementation? ›

18 Challenges in achieving MDG were:

Lack of synergy among the goals. Global economic crisis. Lack of interconnectivity between the goals. Less consideration to environmental and economic dimensions.

Which millennium goals help produce more jobs? ›

MDG Targets 1b: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.

What are the Millennium Development Goals Do you agree that the MDB has recorded progress in the last two decades? ›

The millennium development goals have targeted eight key areas – poverty, education, gender equality, child mortality, maternal health, disease, the environment and global partnership. Each goal is supported by 21 specific targets and more than 60 indicators.

What if the 8 Millennium Development Goals are achieved? ›

If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment (2.

What is the 8th global goal? ›

Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth - The Global Goals. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

How can you help in achieving the Millennium Development Goals? ›

Develop a global partnership for development
  • Develop further an open trading and financial system that includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction nationally and internationally. ...
  • Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems.
  • Develop decent and productive work for youth.

Why are the 17 Global Goals important? ›

The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice.

Who made the 17 Global Goals? ›

In 2015, the United Nations created 17 Sustainable Development Goals and aimed to achieve them by 2030. All 193 United Nations Member States agreed on these 17 goals to end poverty, ensure prosperity, and protect the planet.

Why is global goal 9 important? ›

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. Sustainable Development Goal 9 addresses three important aspects of sustainable development: infrastructure, industrialization and innovation.

Videos

1. Jeffrey Sachs - Ending Poverty in Our Generation
(Dartmouth)
2. Special Lecture: History of Japan's Education Development - Implications for Maldives
(The Maldives National University)
3. Creating a Domestic Consensus on Development – Perspectives from Western Allies
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
4. Farukh Amil: Bridges or Walls?
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5. Who are the Players in Global Health? A Tutorial by Michele Barry
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6. What Made Modern Japan: Lessons From Its History and Development
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